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BEGC 133

BRITISH LITERATURE

BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Table of Contents

BEGC 133 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

SECTION – A

Q. I. Explain the following passages with reference to the context.

(I)“I have no spur
To prick the sides of my intent, but only
Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself
And falls on th’ other.”

Ans. Context. These lines are taken from Macheth Written by Shakespeare

Explanation: Shakespearean scholars almost unanimously agree that de berries fully responsible for his actions.

It is certainly his “vaulting ambition” that makes him murder Duncan, and then the fear of insecurity does not let his mind take a rest.

In Christian terms, Macbeth is completely free to choose his course of action. He commands reason which scans the whole situation before he decides to kill Duncan. He himself speaks well of Duncan:

Besides, this Duncan
Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been
So clear in his great office, that his virtues
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongud.
I have no spur. To prick the sides of my intent, but only
Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself
And falls on th other.

This frank admission of Duncan’s qualities and of his own evil makes Macheth decide not to murder but after Lady Macbeth’s sweeping persuasion,

it is his own decision that settles him to commit regicide. In the same way, before contriving Banquo’s murder, he analyses the situation and reaches a very logical conclusion that to be safely thus” is better than to be thus”.

However, his frantic “bare-fac d power is used without the force of reasoning in surprising Macduff’s house and killing the innocent Macduff’s.

But, at this stage, he has reached the point of no return; he has “Suppd full with horror;” and he has strange things in his head “which must be acted, ere they may be scanned”. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The witches are not capable of compelling Macbeth to do wrong: they can only persuade by announcing future events.

It is only a responding emotion within Macbeth which makes him interpret the prophecies of the witches after his own wishes.

Bradley says that the words of the witches are fatal to the hero only because there is in him something that leaps into light at the sound of them.

In dramatic terms, the witches cannot be only a dire ambition “slumbering in the hero’s soul” because, in addition to Macbeth’s ambition, Bradley says, they must represent “all those obscurer influences of evil around him.”

BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(ii) “Out, damned spot: out I say!
One, Two: Why then ’tis Time to do t. Hell is murky. Fie. My Lord, fie: a Soldier, and affear’d? What need we fear? Who knows it,
When none can call our Power to accompt”?

Any Context: These lines are taken from Macbeth written by Shakespeare.

Explanation: In Macbeth evil is ubiquitous. Its functions are very malignant in moralistic terms and very profound in dramatic terms.

Dramaturgically, the most important of its functions is to create an atmosphere congenial to murders. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Prerequisites for murder are doubt confusion, uncertainty fear and mistrust. Shakespeare uses his best poetic and dramatic genius in creating such an atmosphere in Macbeth which provides such prerequisites.

He uses many literary devious recreate such feeling the peal order of the things is reversed goalsquare reality: irony is stringent and biting: poetic imagery is violent and tense;

an effort is made to freeze the flow of time, the futility of purpose is wildly exposed to the astonishment of the renkler; the horror of the dialogues gives a shiver in the spine. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Thus fear becomes the central emotion of the play. The reversal of values is marked by the prevailing evil which takes over every existence in the world of Macbeth: a loyal, dutiful and courageous soldier, whose duty is to protect his country and king.

murders the beneficent king and plagues the whole country. He starts as “Bellona’s bridegroom” and ends up as “Hell-hound”.

He has in his disposition the milk of human kindness” yet commits brutal murders. Lady Macbeth assumes the role of a man in the sense of virtue.

She calls the Spirits to unsex her, and change her milk into gall. Banquo wants his allegiance clear but dreams of the Weird Sisters, and cleaves to Macbeth’s intent.

Ross plays the role of a timeserver. Macduff leaves his children to a fatal risk, an act which makes Malcolm suspect his loyalty.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

These and many more factors reverse the circumstances in Macbeth and, consequently, obscure its reality.

A biting irony of the situation appears when Macheth secures the title of Thane of Cawdor only to repeat the role of Cawdor.

The irony is stringent when Macbeth goes on thinking about murdering the king while the king continues lavishing his kindness upon macbeth

Macbeth’s first meeting with King Duncan is very ironic: he enters when Duncan says that there is no art to know by a study of a human face the construction of the mind. Malcolm’s remark about Cawdor.

“he died as one that had been studied in his death” ironically fits Macbeth. In spite of being without any children, Macbeth commits frantic murders to retain kingship for them.

Lady Macbeth’s sleep is disturbed by a “damned spot” eternally glued to her hand, which, she thinks, could be removed with a little water.

And the towering irony in the play is Macbeth’s futility of purpose which he realizes but cannot repair.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(iii) “How strange it is to be talked to in such a way! You know, I’ve always gone on like that. I mean the noble attitude and the thrilling voice. I did it when I was a tiny child to my nurse. She believed in it. I do it before my parents. They believe in it.”

Ans. Context: These lines are taken from Arms and the Man written by W.B. Yeats.

Explanation: Arms and the Man is considered as an anti-romantic comedy, Raina lives in an artificial world of romance and considers herself to be in love with Sergius.

Her notions of love come from reading Byron and Pushkin and from operas she has seen in Bucharest.

Sergius has led a triumphant charge against the Serbs in a recent battle at Slivnitza and is the hero of the hour, the idol of the regiment.

The play shows how Raina in a romantic fashion picks up a picture of Sergius and gazes at it proudly. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

She adores the picture of Sergius with feelings that are beyond expression. She does not kiss it but looks upon it as if it were something holy

Her unexpected meeting with Bluntschli obstructs her romantic dreams. Bluntschli, who is free from romantic illusions about war and does not view it as the means to win glory, strikes at the root of Raina’s lofty ideals.

aristocratic manner and pride in her family’s social status. Gradually she realizes the folly of her romantic illusions.

When Sergius returns after the battle they greet each other rapturously: Raina uses words like “My hero! My king” and Sergius says “My queen!” Private Limited

Almost immediately after this exchange of sublime feelings, it is ironic that we find Sergius flirting with the servant girl Louka and trying embrne her Sergius words himself predicts the higher love when he says “Louka, do you know what the higher love is?” and “Very fatiguing thing to keep up for any length of time, Louka.

One feels the need of some relief after it.” –

Sergius seems to realize the artificiality of his cherished ideals and exclaims at the end of War! The dream of patriots and heroes! A fraud Bluntschli, a hollow sham, like love.”

Later in the play, Raina asks herself. “Oh, what sort of god is this, that I have been worshipping?” when she finds out that Sergius has been flirting with Louka.

Now that Bluntschli has found her out”, she has discarded her affectation of a “noble attitude and a thrilling voice”.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

She also gets rid of her romantic illusion of higher love’, which like her views about war and soldiers, is probably derived from her reading of romances. Thus, the play demonstrates that it is an anti-romantic comedy,

BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(iv)“Thou hast betray’d thy nature and thy name,
Not rendering true answer, as beseem’d
Thy fealty, nor like a noble knight:
For surer sign had follow’d, either hand,
Or voice, or else a motion of the mere.”

Ans.Explanation: On Bedivere’s return, Arthur asks what he heard and saw when he threw the sword into the lake.

Bedivere lies that he heard the sound of a ripple and the wild water hitting the crag as though he had thrown the sword into the water.

King Arthur knows that the sword cannot fall into the water because it will be caught by an arm rising from the water.

He reprimands Bedivere for lying because if he had thrown the sword as he was told, he would have got another sign almost like a miracle. Arthur orders Bedivere to go and throw the sword.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

SECTION -B

Q. 2. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Thomas Hardy and the fictional region of Wessex.

Ans. Hardy’s Wessex: Thomas Hardy’s Wessex is an imaginary landscape that found a place in his writings.

Wessex has been a part of his characters in his writings with its moods and destiny. Hardy, born in Upper Brockhampton, Dorset, where he spent much of his adult life, was well acquainted with the local customs and location in this part of England and which are depicted in his novels and poetry.

Wessex, the fictional place is located in Southern England.

Hardy’s intense study and accurate portrayal of 19th-century rural society in Dorset presents a microcosm of human life through which Hardy intended to comment on the universal condition of human existence. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Wessex is the setting for his four major novels, Far From the Madding Crowd. Return of the Native. The Mavor of Casterbridge and Tess of the D’Urbervilles.

Hardy describes the natural world in great details, making it more significant than a just setting against which the narrative unfolds.

Hardy develops a reciprocal relationship between environment and character, an interaction that serves to show the changing position of humans in the post-Darwinian Victorian period.

Hardy’s narrative dephets the natural world in the same way different individuals are described and vice versa.

This technique removes the sense of authority from human hands, placing humans within the natural world instead of ruling above it.

Hardy had come under the influence of Charles Darwin his Orgina Species had postulated the theory that the human species as it is today, is the result of natural selection which is a random selection without any intent.

It is a circumstance that has enabled different species to evolve into the humus ponies Newsletion is the central concept of evolution which is the process where organisms evolve by adapting to their environment.

Such a postulation went against the prevalent Christian belief in God as the Creator

Hardy’s focus on the environment shows the influence of Darwinian theory the role of fate and circumstance are vital features of the plot, echoing the stress evolutionary ideas place upon chance, extinction, and survival.

Darwin’s focus on the power of circumstance to change the outcome of natural selection is evident in Hardy’s fiction.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Human forces are ultimately rendered inconsequential against the unseen powers that seem to rule their immediate environment.

(b) Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King” and the Arthurian Legend.

Ans. Tennyson’s Idylls of the King: Tennyson’s Idylls of the King includes twelve narrative poems published between 1842 and 1888 about the legend of King Arthur and the rise and fall of his kingdom.

Idylls of the King, considered as Tennyson’s magnum opus, subscribes in many aspects to the definition of an epic poem.

An *idyll means a narrative poem on a grand epic or romantic theme. Fascinated by Thomas Malory’s work Le Morte d’Arthur, Tennyson based his poem on it.

The poem traces the life and history of King Arthur his lady love Guinevere his famed Round Table with his twelve knights, symbolic of equal status enjoyed by each one of them and his final battle.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Tennyson, a Poet Laureate felt he owed it to his nation to pay tribute to its glorious past and chose the Arthurian legend for Idylls of the King and make the people feel proud of their glorious inheritance.

Tennyson sought to incorporate the past and the present in the Idylls. In this story, Arthur is often seen as an embodiment of Victorian ideals.

He is said to be ideal manhood closed in real man” and the stainless gentleman”.

Arthur often has unrealistic expectations for the Knights of the Round Table and for Camelot itself and despite his best efforts, he is unable to uphold the Victorian ideal in his Camelot.

The Victorian age had its strict moral codes to follow. Any infringement of the codes evoked the anger of the people.

Thus, Tennyson presents Arthur as the embodiment of the highest ideals of manhood and kingship. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In the first part, *Dedication, Arthur is depicted as modest, kindly, all-accomplished, wise just and not swaying to this faction or to that with no winged ambitions and wearing the white flower of a blameless life.BEGC 133 Free Solved Assignment

He was a simple knight among his knights. There were many in his kingdom who deemed him to be more than a man, someone who had dropped from heaven.

To Queen Victoria and her husband Albert, the description of Arthur as an exemplary King and as an ideal man was highly flattering as it was obvious that Tennyson had modeled his Arthur on the British monarch and her consort.

The book opens with the coming of Arthur as the King of Camelot, his love for and marriage with Guinevere and his setting-up of the famous Round Table exemplifying the unique democratic ideal where the King is given the status as the first among equals.

The Book introduces all the 12 knights including Lancelot, the best among them.

The narrative is woven around the betrayal of King Arthur by Guinevere and Lancelot and the gradual disintegration of the Round Table.

The last betrayal of the king was by the son of one of the Knights. Mordred. In a battle with Mordred, Arthur is grievously injured. Book 11. “Morte d’Arthur” (The Passing of Arthur) as the heading shows, delight with the death of Ashurah of

The entire work dills of the King is about Arthur’s failed efforts to usher in a new order to lift up mankind and create a perfect kingdom when he dies at the hands of the traitor Mordred.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The last book “To the Queen” is where Tennyson, the Poet Linteatt brises queen Victoria and her recently deceased Prince consort Albert after whom he had modeled Arthur, and prays that she, like Arthur, is remembered as a great ruler long after her reign is over.

The story of Arthur is one of the most popular legends in medieval history. There are a number of stories and pieces of literature on King Arthur’s reign.

Among them is Morte d’Arthur, written by Sir Thomas Malory first published in 1485. Malory’s work is written in Middle English.

It is a reworking of existing tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table. Although King Arthur tried to maintain structure and order as a king, betrayal by the people closest to him eventually led to his fall. Symbols and Themes of the Legend of Kind Arthur

Deception, trust, betrayal and love are the major themes from the legend of King Arthur. Symbols like the quest for the Holy Grail and the Round Table are associated with the legend.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Holy Grail refers to the bowl or chalice with unusual powers that confers happiness and is therefore much sought after by medieval knights.

It is identified with the bowl used by Jesus in his Last Supper and given to Joseph
of Arimathea who brought it to Britain where it lay hidden for many centuries.

Joseph had got the responsibility of Jesus’s burial after his crucifixion. The search for that miraculous chalice became the principal quest of Arthur’s knights.

The Holy Grail in Arthur’s legend became symbolic not only of spiritual perfection, but also the human perfection which Arthur believed was fundamental to humanity.

The Round Table, around which he and his knights congregate, had no head, implying that everyone who sits there has equal status.

Arthur who sits with his choice selection of twelve knights considers himself the first among equals. The Round Table shows the monarchy an ideal democratic one.

Arthur created the Round Table to prevent quarrels among his barons, none of whom would accept a lower place than the others because only the most distinguished and valiant Knights enjoyed the privilege of the fellowship of the Round Table and thus would not like to have anyone occupying a higher seat.

The Knights had a distinctive identity of their own and were a part of a collective personality. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Round Table became the symbol of chivalry, a code that inspired people from far ofl distant lands to follow it. The symbolism of the chivalric order was closely allied to Arthur’s court and his Knights of the Round Table.

The Round Table was supposedly patterned after a table made to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus Christ.

One of the seats at that table was left empty to symbolize Judas, the apostle who betrayed Jesus.

A parallel here covers the betrayal of King Arthur by Lancelot, one of the twelve knights at the Round Table and the greatest among them.

He betrayed the trust Arthur had reposed in him by his relationship with Guinevere, who was Arthur’s Queen.

Lancelot’s love for Guinevere and his betrayal is presented alongside similar unholy affairs of other Knights of the Round Table.

The betrayal of the king by Lancelot, the usurpation of his kingdom by Mordred, the son of another of the twelve Knights, brought Arthur close to his death and led to the decline of the Round Table. King Arthur dies in the battle he fought with Mordred.

The other factor that led to the fall of King Arthur was the evisceration of frust.

The two people, Guinevere and Lancelot whom King Arthur trusted the most betrayed him. Lancelot’s deception was instrumental in the collapse of honor, gallantry, and chivalry which the Round Table and loodser. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The theme of love is to show in the relationship between King Arthur and Guinevere prior to her affair with Lancelot and then again between Lancelot and Guinevere.

(c) The Banquet Scene in Macbeth.

Ans. The Banquet Scene Macbeth scene iv, act it take place at the most royal hall of Scotland with the banquet ready celebrating Macbeth’s coronation.

The audience now knows the couple’s double-dealing, and detect in the opening words of the new king tinge of irony: “You know your own degrees…” The arrival of Banquo as a ghost exposes the treacherous person.

But before that, treachery has been highlighted in the act of offering the banquet.

Macbeth’s act of murdering the king and thus violating the moral order is re-enacted in his consecration of such a sacred ritual as offering a communal feast, a ritual which has been looked upon as a gesture of faith and fraternal bond existing in the community everywhere and always in the human culture.

Fittingly enough, the announcement of the banquet is disturbed and delayed by the arrival of the first murderer at the door.

It should be noted here that Macbeth becomes alarmed at the sight of blood on the face of the murderer. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

It may be surmised whether the blood of Banquo and the news of the escape of Fleance, leaving behind the possibility of the fulfillment of the Witches’ prophecy, unhinge his mind for the moment.

He says himself.”…now I am cabin d.cribb d. confined bound in Saucy doubts and fears.”

But the dramatic irony becomes most effective when the audience watches the blood ghost of Banquo enter the stage and sit at Macbeth’s appointed chair and Macbeth, unaware of its presence, wishes: “Were the graced person of our Banquo present.”

As he becomes aware of its presence, the whole scheme goes awry for Macbeth.

Though the queen tries hard to stop the involuntary confessions, the situation goes beyond her control.

Here, the audience can notice that the lady is not the kind of stuff now as she had been before while goading Macbeth into murdering the king.

From this point, the weakening of her character begins though she succeeds in giving the correct psychological explanations behind her husband’s hallucinations: This is the very painting of your fear”, the strange will very soon infect her and bring in her nemesis.

As Lady Macbeth pushes him towards the corner of the stage, Macbeth bursts in mixed reactions of fear, anger, irritation, uneasiness, submission, philosophical ruminations and apprehension of retribution. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

He now understands that in the moral universe, tumbled upside down by him, death to a person does not put an end to all, that dead men”…rise again.

With twenty mortal wounds on their crowns, And push us from our stools…” Macbeth confesses that he is afraid of the ghost because it bears the evidence of his gruesome murder, thereby exposing his hypocrisy and moral flaw.

Macbeth now understands the truth that.. the blood will have blood”, that is, murder begets murder; but he falsely draws the conclusion to his own purpose, that is, further murders will become necessary to protect his throne.

The king of Scotland, however, talks of the dilemma of ambition, which was typically the Renaissance and is symptomatic of the modern age: “…I am in blood Stepp’d in so far that should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go over.”

(d) The Victorian Conflict’ as expressed in the poems of Tennyson.

Ans. Victorian Conflict refers to the conflict between old and new ideas in respect of science and religion, faith and doubt, morality and rights of women.

The prose writings of the period Deflect the Victorian conflicts ensuing between economic progress and prosperity as against poverty and exploitation of the working class, between faith and doubt, between individualism as against collective and shared responsibility and Victorian morals as against moral decay in society

Victorian compromise refers to the combination of the positive and negative aspects (optimism and pessimism) of the period.

The positive emerged from the changes in the standard of living brought about by the Industrial Revolution and technological advancement.

The negatives related to poverty, starvation and poor living conditions of the working class.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 3. Write short essays on the following:

(a) Write a short essay on Bernard Shaw’s political vision. To what extent did this vision colour his dramatie work?

Ans. Shaw believes in inequality of opportunity. He advocates that the human aspiration to lead a better life can be achieved through social change.

Shaw remains a socialist all his life and most of his plays have socialist themes and sub-texts. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

His socialist perspective colors his critique of the rigidities of the British class system and of the capitalist order in all his writings.

In his prose writings. Shaw maintains a consistent attack on the injustices of the capitalist system.

He supports various social causes such as women’s rights, equality of income, abolition of private property, and changes in the voting system. Most of his plays are built around these social issues.

He has a distinct Irish quality of Arimathea who brought it to Britain where it lay hidden for many centuries, Joseph had got the responsibility of Jesus’s burial after his crucifixion.

The search for that miraculous chalice became the principal quest of Arthur’s knights.

The Holy Grail in Arthur’s legend became symbolic not only of spiritual perfection, but also the human perfection which Arthur believed was fundamental to humanity.

The Round Table, around which he and his knights congregate, had no head, implying that everyone who sits there has equal status.

Arthur who sits with his choice selection of twelve knights considers himself the first among equals.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Round Table shows the monarchy an ideal democratic one.

Arthur created the Round Table to prevent quarrels among his barons, none of whom would accept a lower place than the others because only the most distinguished and valiant knights enjoyed the privilege of the fellowship of the Round Table and thus would not like to have anyone occupying a higher seat.

The Knights had a distinctive identity of their own and were a part of a collective personality.

The Round Table became the symbol of chivalry, a code that inspired people from far off distant lands to follow it.

The symbolism of the chivalric order was closely allied to Arthur’s court and his Knights of the Round Table.

The Round Table was supposedly patterned after a table made to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus Christ.

One of the seats at that table was left empty to symbolize Judas, the apostle who betrayed Jesus. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

A parallel here covers the betrayal of King Arthur by Lancelot, one of the twelve knights at the Round Table and the greatest among them.

He betrayed the trust Arthur had reposed in him by his relationship with Guinevere, who was Arthur’s Queen.

Lancelot’s love for Guinevere and his betrayal is presented alongside similar unholy affairs of other Knights of the Round Table.

The betrayal of the king by Lancelot, the usurpation of his kingdom by Mordred, the son of another of the twelve Knights, brought Arthur close to his death and led to the decline of the Round Table. King Arthur dies in the battle he fought with Mordred.

The other factor that led to the fall of King Arthur were the evisceration of frust. The two people, Guinevere and Lancelot whom King Arthur trusted the most betrayed him.

Lancelot’s deception was instrumental in the collapse of honor, gallant addiyatry which the Round Table Sided for the theme of love first in the relationship between King Arthur and Guinevere prior to her affair with Lancelot and then again between Lancelot and Guinevere.

Q. 3. Write short essays on the following:

(a) Write a short essay on Bernard Shaw’s political vision. To what extent did this vision colour his dramatic work?

Ans. Shaw believes in inequality of opportunity. He advocates that the human aspiration to lead a better life can be achieved through social change.

Shaw remains a socialist all his life and most of his plays have socialist themes and sub-texts.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

His socialist perspective colors his critique of the rigidities of the British class system and of the capitalist order in all his writings. In his prose writings, Shaw maintains a consistent attack on the injustices of the capitalist system.

He supports various social causes such as women’s rights, equality of income, abolition of private property and changes in the voting system.

Most of his plays are built around these social issues. He has a distinct Irish quality in his writing.

Sternlicht points out that like Oscar Wilde, Shaw had a distinctively Irish wit. Theatre critic Christopher Innes observes how living and working in England gave Shaw a unique perspective.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Many critics say his Irish heritage gave Shaw a unique perspective on British society which made it possible for him to view its social problems from a different angle.

Like Ibsen, Shaw made discussion the basis of his plays, where the dramatic conflict became the conflict of thought and belief.

Shaw wrote long preface before every play explaining in detail the ideas in the play. His writing is defined and shaped by his political and social vision.

Shaw’s five plays-Widowers Houses, Mrs. Warrens Profession, John Bulls another island, Major Barbara and Pygmalion-are concerned directly with economic, social, and class questions.

Widowers Houses, which analyses the economic basis of capitalist society is the nearest he ever came to writing a purely socialist dramatic work. In the preface to Widowers Houses, Shaw says that this play is deliberately intended to induce people to vote on the Progressive side at the next Council election in London”.

Shaw’s first play Widower’s Houses, performed in 1892, exposes the manner in which the capitalist system perverts and corrupts human behavior and relationships”, by showing respectable”middle-class people, exploiting the poverty of the slum.

It is based on the fact that the wealthy and respectable character Sartorius is actually a slum landlord. John Bulls Other Island (1904) focuses on the issues of colonialism and land ownership in Ireland.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Man and Superman (1903) is a philosophical play. Shaw notes in his “Epistle Dedicatory” he wrote the play as a pretext for a propaganda of our own views of life”.

the Cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittle and the Phonetics Professor Higgins and the professor’s attempt to teach Eliza Standard English, so that she becomes presentable in upper-class society.

The play has an element of social criticism. Major Barbara Published in 1907, portrays the conflict between spiritual and worldly power.

The plot centers around the characters Barbara, a Major in the Salvation Army; her wealthy father, the arms manufacturer, Andrew under shatt; and her lover, the Scholar cusins.

In this play, Shaw aimed to expose hidden connections and complicities in this case the links between philanthropic organizations and capitalism.

Heartbreak House on the household of Captain Shot over and his family. It portrays an aspect of British or European civilization that is about to drive itself to destruction through lack of direction or lack of grasp of economic reality.”

The play is Shaw’s judgment on his own class and its failure to prevent the most tragic waste of life in human history.” BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The play exposes the aimlessness of the elite classes and the intelligentsia of England and of Europe and their inability in preventing the tragedy of World War I.

(b) According to Terry Eagleton, the real heroines of the play Macbeth, are the witches. Do you agree with this view ? Justify your answer with your views on the role of the witches in Macbeth.

Ans. The Witches in Macbeth: Witches are some of the most intriguing characters in Macbeth and they have drawn a lot of attention.

Early criticism considers them as evil forces. Recent critical inputs have helped understand them in the context of the debates on witchcraft.

Debates around Witches and witchcraft

In 16TH century England, witchcraft was fiercely condemned. There were witch trials and executions.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Examples included the St. Osyth witch trials of 1582 and the North Berwick trials of 1591. Elizabeth passed a statute against witchcraft in 1563.

Scotland also passed an act against witchcraft during that period. King James I introduced the Act as a new statute in 1604. This Act was revoked in 1736.

As per the Act, anyone who even invokes, consults or even covenants with the witches is liable to be punished. It implies that people had a belief in the supernatural and witchcraft.

The possible source texts for Macbeth mention the witches in varied ways. John Major does not mention the witches and Buchanan refers to them as part of a dream.

Holinshed’s Chronicles mentions Macbeth’s meeting with the “weird sisters.”

Faith Nostbakken mentions how Holinshed in the historical narrative of King Duff’s reign in Scotland tells of rebels trying to overthrow the king by seeking assistance from witches.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Nostbakken says Holinshed has two different views to the witches-the weird sisters are really three goddesses with supernatural powers over human beings”, but Renaissance England with its belief on demors saw the witches as related to them.

King James condemned them as evil in Daemonologie (1597). Reginald Scot dismissed this as superstition in The Discovery of Witchcraft (1584).

The witches in Macbeth should be read against such sixteenth-century debates that surrounded witchcraft. BEGC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Scot wrote his book two years after the St. Osyth trials in which six were women were condemned to execution. Scot sees them as old women, poor women and rejects any Biblical mention of the same.

King James’ was concerned about witchcraft Scotland was more severe in its treatment of witchcraft and the laws were implemented with greater severity.

The Scottish Witchcraft Act was passed in 1563. The North Berwick trials qS 1591 caused a group of people for plotting against the king.

After the North Berwick trial and its relation to the plot against the monarch, King James Took stricter started Howard Witchcraft Learning

Terry Eagleton: “The Witches Are the Heroine of the Piece” (1986)

Eagleton considers the Witches in Vacreth as the real heroines of the play. He relates them with a positive value” and calls them exiles from that violent order, inhabiting their own sisterly community on its shadowy borderlands, refusing all truck with its tribal bickerings and military honors”.

He says their “riddling ambiguous speech is another example of their subversion of the structure of power.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In that sense, he considers the witches as the ***unconscious of the drama”. They pose a threat to the normative society and thus they need to be repressed.

They challenge the monarch’s power and the ones in power exercise control through legislation.

Eagleton describes these women as “androgynous (bearded women), multiple (three-in-one) and imperfect speakers.

They undermine the “stable social, sexual and linguistic forms” which is essential for the working of the world in the play and even outside it.

Eagleton traces the transgression by the Macbeths within history and the subversive nature of the witches within cyclical time. The use of the moon, dance, verbal repetition is seen as “inimical to linear history”.

The Case of Lady Macbeth

Lady Macbeth instigates Macbeth to become a man by killing Duncan and claiming his due on the grounds of valor.

In the sixteenth century world, Lady Macbeth can realize her ambition only viz-a-viz her husband. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

If Macbeth claims the throne, Lady Macbeth too makes a strange narrative of her own. She has often been called the fourth witch. It is because she uses one that does not follow the syntax of normative society.

The freedom in the choice of words that she makes her own is only seen in the supernatural world of the witches.

Terry Eagleton says Lady Macbeth is a bourgeois individualist for whom traditional ties of rank and kinship are less constitutive of personal identity than mere obstacles to be surmounted in the pursuit of one’s private ends.

She belonged to a world that was increasingly more mercantile than before, even as it continued under a monarch.

In the Cromwellian period, the monarch has been executed and the republic was established. Traders and merchants became more important in the seventeenth century.

Thus, calling Lady Macbeth a bourgeois individualist” would be appropriate. People were driven by their desires to acquire personal benefit. In doing so they also flout the existing social mores. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Eagleton points out Lady Macbeth is akin to the three sisters in celebrating female power, but in modern parlance, she is a bourgeois feminist who strives to outdo in domination and virility the very male system which subordinates her.

SECTION -C

Q. 4. Discuss Thomas Hardy’s philosophical views. In what way is his philosophy as expressed in Far From the Madding Crowd different from that in later novels like The Mayor of Casterbridge?

Ans. In Far From the Madding Crowd Hardy’s philosophy on life is found. It has biblical references, determinism, meliorism and the role of fate. Hardy Ses many allusions throughout the novel Particularly to Biblical stories and to Classical mythology.

For example, when Bathsheba bursts into tears after Troy kisses her for the first time, Hardy writes that “It had brought upon her a stroke resulting, as did that of Moses in Horeb, in a liquid stream”.

Hardy alludes to the Biblical story in which Moses is leading a group of tired and exhausted Israelites through the desert. God instructs to strike a rock on Mount Horeb and when he does so, it splits open and water pours out for the people to drink.

The allusion, therefore, helps the reader to understand the vulnerability and danger Bathsheba is experiencing at this moment and the way her tears are a way to relieve her complex feelings. BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Two other important allusions are contained in the name of one of the protagonists and in the title of the novel.

Bathsheba’s unusual name would immediately bring to mind the Biblical story of David and Bathsheba.

In this story, a beautiful woman named Bathsheba attracted the attention of King David when he saw her bathing and even though he was already married he seduced her.

Afterward, when Bathsheba became pregnant in order to cover up the adultery, David gave orders to ensure her husband would be killed in battle so that he could marry her himself.

This story of lust, deception and rivalry echoes some of the major themes of the novel.
On Determinism, In Far From the Madding Crowd.

Fanny could not marry Troy because of fate. She went to a different church from the one where Troy was waiting for him.

In the novel, Hardy sees that Oak and Bathsheba can marry in the future and that is the reason that he keeps Oak as solid as Oak tree and he marries Bathsheba at the end.BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Far from the Madding Crowd is an exception because it ends on a happy note of bringing Gabriel Oak and Bathsheba together.

Troy’s return at the very moment Boldwood is getting ready to marry Bathsheba is an instance of the operation of forces outside man’s plans and actions.

Gabriel shows how despite all odds against human life. man can overcome it by taking responsibility for fellow men. BEGC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Novels like Tess, Jude the Obscure and The Mayor of Casterbridge end in tragedy where Fate or Chance plays a causal role in human affairs.

Chance or Fate can change man’s destiny. For Hardy, chance is everything over which man has no control, BEGC 133 Solved Free Assignment 2022

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