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BEGS 185

English Language Teaching

BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Section A

Write short notes on the following:

(i) Language Learning Aptitude

Ans: Language Learning Aptitude: We often come across people who have learned several languages both at school and college and when they have traveled abroad.

So, there is a popular idea that some people have a knack for languages, just like having a feel for music or dancing or being good with one’s hands.

In the second half of the last century the study of languages, especially foreign languages, began to increase- covering more languages and more students.

Linguists and psychologists took up research on language aptitude, and two well-known tests were developed: the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) of Carroll and Sapon (1959), and the Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery (PLAB) of Pimsleur (1966).

These tests have sections dealing with specific sub-skills like phonetic coding, grammatical sensitivity, sound discrimination, sound-symbol association, short term memory after rote learning, BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(ii) Multiple Intelligences

Ans: Multiple Intelligences: Multiple intelligences is a theory first posited by Harvard developmental psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983 that suggests human intelligence can be differentiated into eight modalities: visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, musical-rhythmic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and bodily-kinesthetic.

Eschewing previously narrow, preconceived notions of learning capabilities (for example, the concept of a single IQ), the idea behind the theory of multiple intelligences is that people learn in a variety of different ways.

Multiple intelligences refers to a theory describing the different ways students learn and acquire information.

These multiple intelligences range from the use of words, numbers, pictures, and music, to the importance of social interactions, introspection, physical movement, and being in tune with nature. BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Accordingly, an understanding of which type(s) of intelligence a student may possess can help teachers adjust learning styles, and suggest certain career paths for learners,

BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(iii) Classroom Interaction

Ans: Classroom Interaction: Classroom Interaction is a practice that enhances the development of the two very important language skills which are speaking and listening among the learners.

This device helps the learner to be competent enough to think critically and share their views among their peers.

Benefits of classroom interaction:

i.Increases motivation, self-confidence, and self-esteem: when children engage in a classroom activity or discussion, they might feel motivated to discuss further.

ii. Peer assistance: Student-to-student classroom interactions might help a child learn better, clarify doubts, and look at a topic from a different perspective.

iii. Asking questions can lead to a better understanding: There is no such thing as a silly question. Asking questions will enable the child to understand the topic better.

iv. Classroom participation creates enthusiastic learning energy: Nobody likes a dull classroom. Learning should be fun! The more you participate, the better you can learn.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(iv) Use of Research Tools

Ans: Use of Research Tools: It is necessary to adopt a systematic procedure to collect essential data. Relevant data, adequate in quantity and quality should be collected.

The instruments thus employed as means for collecting data are called tools. The selection of suitable instruments or tools is of vital importance for successful research.

Research tools are specific mechanisms or strategies that the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data. BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Six general tools of research:

1) the library and its resources,

2) the computer and its software,

3) techniques of measurement,

4) statistics,

5) the human mind, and

6) language.

Questionnaires, interviews, rating and attitude scales, and tests, are the major data-gathering research tools. In the following sections and sub-sections, we shall discuss these research tools.

‘Questionnaire’ is a commonly used and frequently abused tool for gathering a variety of data. Three of the most influential and common purposes of research are exploration, description, and explanation.

(v) Retrospective Evaluation

Ans: Retrospective Evaluation: Retrospective evaluation of behavior change. Accomplished by surveys measuring skill use, 360-degree assessment, interviews, etc.

Examines if the training had the long-term personal impact that resulted in behaviours instilled or changed.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

As the name suggests, this is the process of evaluating the usefulness of the material once it has been used to decide whether it is to be used again.

It is looking at the content and evaluating what works, what does not work and how it can be adapted to make it more workable. It means testing the validity of the predictive evaluation and it is also feedback on the predictive approach itself.

This evaluation can be carried out impressionistically or in a systematic manner. While they are using the materials, teachers assess whether it works, and at the end of the course, they make summative judgments of the materials.

Empirical evaluations are also often a part of the retrospective evaluation, however, we shall deal with it separately to understand it better.

BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022
                                                                                   Section B

1 Discuss procedures for supporting autonomous learning.

Ans: Procedures for supporting autonomous learning:

What is ‘learning’? In the context of a language classroom, learning may be understood as becoming aware of certain cognitive processes and demonstrating awareness through language use. BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

What is ‘learning’? In the context of a language classroom, learning may be understood as becoming aware of certain cognitive processes and demonstrating awareness through language use.

For example, we can develop a few paragraphs on the blackboard together with the class if we want to teach them paragraph writing. Students soon take charge if we:

give them time to think,
comment on and justify choices, and
value their contributions.

The accompanying discussion will familiarize them with the parameters for evaluating their paragraphs.

We can also start the activity after giving the students a checklist for writing a paragraph. Students may also select paragraphs from any subject and discuss them in class.

Such activities guide the learner to appreciate the cognitive processes involved in developing their potential to think and communicate independently as well in collaboration with others.

2 How does mixed game approach guide independent learning?

Ans: Mixed game approach guide independent learning:

As you choose games, you’ll want to mix up the games you use. These tools will help you analyze which works for you.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Computer Games vs. Simulations:

Computer games are often fantasy-based. Simulations are a form of computer game that simulates something happening in real life. Both are useful.

A simulation might have students dissect a body online, while a computer game that teaches the same thing would be Whack a Bone.

Both can teach the bones and parts of the body. Dissection is more realistic than the game to “whack” the proper bone.

Single- vs. Multi-Player

In a single-player game, each student plays as an individual. There may be a leaderboard at the end, but they aren’t playing against or with other players inside the game.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Multi-player games include other players as either competitors or teammates.

For example, the AIC Conflict Simulation from the University of Michigan is a multi-player simulation of the Arab-Israeli conflict. BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Students play the role of world leaders, and their mentors are grad students at the University of Michigan. Every single game is unique. The learning experience is powerful.

A single-player game, PeaceMaker, also simulates the Arab-Israeli conflict however, it is just the student against the computer. There are no unique elements determined by other players in the game, just the software.

Single-player games can be easier to play and coach, but I’ve gravitated toward at least one multi-player simulation per school year per course.

Multi-player simulation environments require higher-order thinking. Students are analyzing, creating, and having to deeply understand their topic.

3 What are some positive trends in material production?

Ans: Some positive trends in material production:

The publishing trade certainly dominates material developments. While they do claim that it is supported by research on what teachers and children need, this may not be entirely true, as the trade is often driven by economic and commercial pressures.

Unfortunately, teachers and true language experts are unable to compete with the publishing trade and so tend to eventually give in to them.

However, some positive trends about the production of material are:

i. Materials requiring investment by learners where they discover for themselves the intricacies of the language and content.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

ii. Interactive learning packages which use different media to provide richer experiences of the language. BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

iii. Extensive reader series that does not rely just on language activities but provoke the reader to think as well.

iv. Personalized texts that refer the learner to actual life and the use of language in such situations.

v. Increased use of internet sources for language learning.

vi. Introduction of functional grammar rather than rules of grammar.

vii. More and more government research institutions like the NCERT etc. are involved in preparing materials where there is no commercial angle to these materials.

                         Section C

1 What are the characteristics of underprivileged learners?

Ans: Characteristics of underprivileged learners: Present-day psychologists have shown that the idea of some races being more intelligent than others is false.

According to the intelligence is learned rather than inherited. Several research studies conducted on underprivileged learners have identified some of the characteristics of the underprivileged learners.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(i) Low motivation to learn:

The parents of most underprivileged leamers are illiterate and, therefore, hardly encourage their children to learn. BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Their poor socio-economic background has made them more present-oriented, that is, most of their time, energy, and means is spent to satisfy their present needs.

(ii) Low cognitive abilities: Underprivileged learners have low cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities refer to the abilities of an individual which are necessary to function at a level of abstraction, and include perceptual, conceptual, and linguistic abilities.

Underprivileged learners, for instance, tend to learn in a physical fashion.

(iii) Low self-esteem: Underprivileged learners are found to have negative attitudes towards their people, culture, language, and also towards themselves.

One’s attitude to oneself, as you know, is primarily influenced by what others think of us. People from dominant cultures have negative attitudes towards underprivileged learners.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(iv) Poor readers and slow learners: Underprivileged learners are usually poor readers. This is primarily because their homes hardly have any books and they get few chances to develop the habits of reading.

Their learning style is slow and cautious.

(v) Greater sense of independence and responsibility: So far we have talked about some of the negative learning characteristics of the underprivileged Icarners.

But they have also some very positive learner characteristics. In contrast to privileged learners, they are often found to possess a greater sense of independence and responsibility.

2 What are audio-verbal difficulties? What remedial measures will you take to address these difficulties?

Ans: Audio-verbal difficulties:

Delay in language development may lead to auditory discrimination and the child may not be able to retell a story.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Although the child may maintain a correct sequence, the language structures and vocabulary would be poor.

Such children may have difficulty pronouncing letters like ‘sh’ or ‘c’ (sip for ship and tat for cat). They also may not be able to repeat more than four numbers forwards or backward in a sequence of numbers they hear.

Children with auditory-verbal and language difficulties may also have difficulties in blending sounds.

They may be able to pronounce the letters individually but are unable to blend them in a word. A child might be able to read ‘sh’, ‘i’ and ‘p’ separately but is unable to pronounce them together in the word ‘ship’.

They have this problem especially when they are reading longer words.

Such children can be helped by reading out books, magazines or any other text in the environment, to them.BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

They also need to learn that the language of books is different from the language of speech.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Remedial measures will you take to address audio-verbal difficulties:

i. Children must be read to and they need to read themselves.

ii. Let them go over various types of the register (thematic vocabulary) which might help in developing the child’s reflective awareness.

iii. Use nursery rhymes and alliteration at the initial stages and continue it into poetry at a later stage.

iv. Use of folk tales and fairy tales.

v. Modern imaginative stories for listening and reading.

vi. Factual texts.

vii. Use of cloze exercises where the child guesses the context and fills in the blanks which have been deleted after a uniform gap.

There may be gaps where more than one alternative is possible and children can justify their choices, compare with the original and comment upon the difference.

Yet, despite a plethora of activities discussed and suggested to remediate reading difficulty, it is not possible to make definitive statements recommending specific methods for particular reading difficulties. BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

The best thing for the teacher is to make an intelligent guess about the child’s strengths and weaknesses based upon observation.

3 What do you mean by repair? Explain the different types of repair

Ans :Repair: Repair, defined as modifications of trouble sources that have manifested themselves in the discourse, is an important activity in FL learning and communication, both in educational and non-educational contexts.

It is argued that studies of repair in the FL classroom should include all repair activity rather than focus on one specific repair type, viz., the teacher’s correction of learners’ errors.BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In this study, the four repair types suggested by Schegloff, Jefferson, and Sacks (1977) are analyzed, and a further distinction is made according to whether the trouble source is produced by the teacher or a learner.

It is shown that different preferences for repair patterns vary with the type of classroom activity (language-centered vs. content-centered activities), and it is discussed how these preferences relate to repair in non-educational learner native speaker discourse.

Repair strategies are how students resolve conversational problems in speaking, hearing and understanding. BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment

While there is a plethora of research on college and adult students’ repair strategies usage, limited research has been done on the repair strategies usage of elementary school students, more specifically,

Different types of repair: BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Apart from questioning, the activity which most characterizes classroom discourse is the correction of errors. Repair is also called error correction.

The term error correction is a broader term that encompasses all types of teacher feedback. Error correction may be direct or indirect, overt or covert.

Teachers have many options our split-second decisions in the rapid flow of a lesson may have consequences for the learning opportunities we present to our learners.

Repair is closely related to the context of what is being done. The implication is that repair, like other aspects of classroom discourse, should be related to pedagogic goals. There are two types of repair which are as follows:

  1. Direct repair: This refers to overt error correction. Direct repair involves correcting an error quickly and directly. Example:

Student: My brother likes bikes… BEGS 185 Free Solved Assignment
Teacher: not like…likes…he likes bikes

  1. Indirect repair: This repair strategy is covert. In this strategy instead of correcting an error directly, the teacher tries to get the correct response from the learner by giving hints and cues. In other words, the teacher tries to elicit the correct response through questions or appropriate prompts. Example:

Student: My brother likes bikes…

Teacher: Your brother…? Student: like bikes…

Teacher: he…you are talking about your brother…he…

Student: likes bikes… BEGS 185 Solved Free Assignment 2022

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