BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 1 Define school psychology. Discuss the role and functions of a school psychologist.
School psychologists are uniquely qualified members of school teams that support students’ ability to learn and teachers’ ability to teach.
They apply expertise in mental health, learning, and behavior, to help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally.
School psychologists partner with families, teachers, school administrators, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments that strengthen connections between home, school, and the community.
School psychology is the application of psychological principles and techniques to the education of children.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Drawing upon its own knowledge base and that of related fields, including clinical and educational psychology, school psychology focuses on the individual study of children’s learning and adjustment primarily in educational settings.
School Psychology, a general practice of Health Service Psychology, is concerned with children, youth, families, and the schooling process.
School psychologists are prepared to intervene at the individual and system levels, and develop, implement and evaluate programs to promote positive learning environments for children and youth from diverse backgrounds, and to ensure equal access to effective educational and psychological services that promote health development.
School psychologists help children and youth succeed academically, socially, and emotionally.
They collaborate with educators, parents, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments for all students that strengthen connections between home and school.
School psychologists are highly trained in both psychology and education.
They must complete a minimum of a post-Master’s degree program that includes a year-long internship and emphasizes preparation in mental health, child development, school organization, learning styles, motivation, and effective teaching.
Role and functions of a school psychologist: The major roles and functions of practicing school psychologists include psychoeducational assessment, consultation, interventions, research and evaluation, in-service education, and administration.
Psychoeducational assessment: School psychologists spend at least 50 percent of their time administering psychological and educational tests, conducting observations and interviews, and gathering relevant information in the assessment of students experiencing learning and adjustment problems. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
The assessment often includes tests of cognitive ability, school achievement, psychomotor skills, adaptive behavior, social skills, and personal-social adjustment.
Such assessments also involve interviews with parents and teachers, observations in school, and inspection of school records.
Consultation: School psychologists spend about 20 percent of their time in consultation. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This is an indirect method of providing services in which the psychologist works to alter the attitudes and behaviors of others (usually parents and teachers) to affect changes in student behavior, school curriculum, or school system policies.
Interventions: Practitioners spend about 20 percent of their time in direct interventions, including remediation and therapy, that involve referred children.
Conducted individually or in groups, these services are intended to alleviate academic and behavior problems.
Research and evaluation: About 3 percent of practitioner time is devoted to research and evaluation.
Although this is an important role for school psychologists, other priorities preclude much involvement in the design of research and evaluation projects that might better assess the efficacy of referral methods, assessment techniques, therapeutic outcomes, and the evaluation of district programs.
In-service education: Less than 3 percent of practitioner time is devoted to in-service education of district personnel or parents. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
This activity may be directed at many topics, including reducing systemic problems in child study and improving teaching or parenting skills.
Administration: Modern-day services require an unusual amount of record keeping, accounting, and administrative tasks. This role may account for 5 percent of practitioner time. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 2 Explain specific learning disabilities. Discuss its early intervention and assessment.
Ans: Specific learning disabilities:
A specific learning disability is a disorder that interferes with a student’s ability to listen, think, speak, write,spell, or do mathematical calculations.
Students with a specific learning disability may struggle with reading, writing, or math. Specific learning disorder (often referred to as learning disorder or learning disability,
see note on terminology) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins during school-age, although may not be recognized until adulthood.
Learning disabilities refers to ongoing problems in one of three areas, reading, writing and math, which are foundational to one’s ability to learn.
An estimated 5 to 15 percent of school-age children struggle with a learning disability. An estimated 80 percent of those with learning disorders have reading disorder in particular.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
One-third of people with learning disabilities are estimated to also have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Other specific skills that may be impacted include the ability to put thoughts into written words, spelling,reading comprehension, math calculation and math problem solving.
Difficulties with these skills may cause problems in learning subjects such as history, math, science and social studies and may impact everyday activities.
Learning disorders, if not recognized and managed, can cause problems throughout a person’s life beyond having lower academic achievement.
These problems include increased risk of greater psychological distress, poorer overall mental health, unemployment/under-employment and dropping out of school.
Types of specific learning disabilities:
“Specific learning disability” is an umbrella term that can describe many different types of learning issues.An educational evaluation may show that your child has a specific learning disability in a certain subject area.
- A specific learning disability in reading, also known as dyslexia.
- A specific learning disability in writing, also known as dysgraphia. 3. A specific learning disability in mathematics, also known as dyscalculia.
Signs of specific learning disabilities:
1 Persistent difficulties in reading, writing, arithmetic, or mathematical reasoning.
2 Inaccurate or slow and effortful reading or writing
3 Poor written expression that lacks clarity.
4 Difficulties remembering number facts.
5 Inaccurate mathematical reasoning. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Specific learning disabilities Early Intervention and Assessment:
Textbook chapters on human development and human behaviour assert the interaction of heredity and environmental forces in determining the individual’s existing condition.
Likewise, given that specific learning disabilities is an impairment of cognitive processing, a child with SLD will respond and improve substantially if the treatment starts at an early stage. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Early positive experiences and supportive environment can work wonders for the child with specific learning disabilities.
However, the reality is far from this ideal condition. Numerous studies report that specific learning disabilities goes unrecognized majorly owing to the lack of awareness of the teachers as well as the parents.
This lack of knowledge about the condition can further cause problems when the child’s sluggish progress in learning is considered a result of limited intellectual capacity and/or lack of interest and motivation.
Starting from the preschool years itself, SLD goes unrecognized till the onset of formal schooling.
The child with SLD is often brought by parents as selfreferrals or via school referrals.
Often described as “lazy” or “trouble makers”, these children fail to perform well academically as their age counterparts and often are subjected to punitive measures both at home and the school. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The range of problematic behaviours reported in these referrals is varied, and it becomes important to ascertain that there is no presence of any comorbid disabilities.
Q 3 Explain Durganand Sinha’s ecological model of human development.
Ans: Durganand Sinha’s ecological model of human development:
Durganand Sinha’s Ecological Model explains the development of children in Indian context. It classifies environmental influences into two layers:
1 The upper and more visible layer, and
2 the supporting and surrounding layer; the following section provides a description of these group of factors that have an impact on the child’s development.
3 The upper and visible layer: BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Following Sinha’s ecological model, the upper and the more visible layer comprises of influences of and interactions at home, school, and peers.
This is the immediate environment of the child that has a direct effect on the child’s development.
i) Family: In the Western World, the influences of family on child’s development is predominantly painted by the parental styles and interactions.
Diana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist, pioneered in research on parental styles in the 1960s.
She classified parenting styles into four types authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful. With this, followed a succession of studies that attempted to correlate parental styles with the child’s behaviour or performance.
ii) Peers: Children below 3 years of age may respond to other children but the interaction is not sustained for long.
Interestingly, early childhood is marked by ‘free-play’, highlighted by exploration and manipulation of objects in one’s surroundings.
iii) Teachers: Formal education commencing from elementary school provides children with experiences that make them independent from their parents, and help them acquire negotiation skills in their relationships with teachers and classmates.
The cognitive abilities of flexible thinking and effective recall that develop, further assists the child in their pursuit of academic and co-curricular goals. Teachers play an integral role in the socio-emotional and cognitive development of children.
iv) Internet use: In the recent times, rapid advancements in information and communications technology has resulted in digitalization.
This has affected all aspects of our lives, including those of children. With the proliferation of social media sites, the child’s first precious and private moments of life are open for the world to see. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
In present times, the pandemic (COVID-19) crisis resulted in online schooling and examinations which has increased the child’s onscreen presence almost threefold.
- The surrounding and supporting layer:
According to Sinha’s ecological model, the surrounding and supporting layer comprises of the geographical and physical environment and institutional factors like caste, class and the community resources available for use based on the position of that individual in the society.
These are macro level factors comprising of the the physical and social environment which have an indirect influence on the child’s development.
The socioeconomic factors have an impact on the way an infant and young child is reared by the parents. There are significant differences in the child rearing practices as one moves up in the caste/class hierarchy.
Children in a joint-family structure display a greater level of collective and interdependence as compared to children from nuclear households who possess qualities like individuality and self-reliance.
Religion also differ in their emphasis on development on traits like obedience and submission to authority as opposed to initiative and independent decision-making.
Moving from a highly collectivistic culture to an evolving individualistic culture,
Indian mothers have specific child rearing strategies that tend to encourage obedience and passivity in children and enjoy the physical dependence of the child, thereby prolonging the process of self-reliance. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 4 Identification of gifted children in India.
Ans: Identification of gifted children in India: The process of identification of the gifted children was set into motion in the year 2010 when under the guidance of Prof. R. Chidambarum, a first of its kind,
National Project was initiated by the Office of the Principle Scientific Advisor (PSA) to the Government of India.
Given below is a brief description of the three models:
- The NIAS Model: Development of a three-level model for identification and mentoring of gifted children.
II. Delhi University Model: Development of a three-tier model for identification and mentoring of gifted children in and around the urban areas of the capital.
III. Agastya International Foundation Model: This model is based in the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh where the gifted children were identified based on nominations from teachers, parents,
the community as well as screening bases on performance in science fairs, Olympiads, etc. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 5 Social anxiety disorder
Ans: Social anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder is characterised by a fear of scrutiny by other people in comparatively small groups(as opposed to crowds like in agoraphobia), leading to avoidance of social situations. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Social phobia affects3-5 percent of the population and is seen equally in both sexes.
Social phobias may be discrete (i.e., restricted to public speaking, eating in front of others, being unable to urinate in a public lavatory, trembling of hands while writing in presence of others, and not being able to answer questions in social situations) or diffuse, involving almost all social situations outside the family circle.
Social phobias are usually associated with low self esteem and fear of criticism.
The patient may present with complaints of blushing, shakiness or tremors of hands, nausea or urgency of micturition.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Symptoms may progress onto panic attacks. Avoidance is often marked, and in extreme cases may result in complete social isolation.
Q 6 Causal factors of truancy
Ans:Causal factors of truancy:
Truancy is when when a school-age child or adolescent frequently misses school without an adequate excuse.
Each state has its own laws about missed school days and the exact definition of truancy. Most communities face problems with truancy.
While absenteeism and truancy are more common among middle school and high school
students, truancy also occurs in elementary students, especially in inner city schools.
Truancy is not a crime. Law enforcement agencies are often involved in youth truancy cases because truancy can be a precursor to delinquent behaviors and low-level crimes. Following ere some causal factors of truancy:
i) Backwardness in studies.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
ii) Lack of motivation: the child may be from low socio-economic group and the value of education is not stressed at home.
iii) Punitive teacher: the child may be frightened of the teacher, specially if the child is unable to do the home work and receives no help at home.
Q 7 Issues and themes in developmental psychology
Ans: Issues and themes in developmental psychology: A number of questions arise when we commit ourselves to the study of human development.
Is one’s intelligence the result of genetic inheritance or the experiences that one has in life? Will a shy child in early years, grow up to be a shy adult?
There are a number of issues and themes that need to be addressed at the outset of this field of study, which runs right through the experiences and theorizations on human development.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Nature-Nurture Issue: Nature refers to the hereditary influences on human characteristics which include physical characteristics, intellectual capacities, personality traits and patterns of social interactions.
Continuous-Discontinuous Development: The continuous-discontinuous issue addresses how developmental events manifest a smooth progression across the life stages (continuity) or a series of distinct stages.
Stability-Change: The stability-change issue concerns itself with the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through out or can be subject to change?
Q 8 Information processing theory
Ans:Information processing theory: During the 1950’s research on artificial intelligence was being very popular with experts and psychology scientists trying to create a computer model of intelligence which can perform many tasks that human’s brain performs.
However, with the many new tools and techniques such the FMRI and PET etc., the study of brain functions has become much more sophisticated, more scientific and more informative. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
As pointed out by experts and researchers the information processing studies of cognition flourished during 60’s and 70’s. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
To be more specific, information processing theory is actually a framework that has within it a certain number of related theories having some common assumptions.
As for instance one such assumption is that all cognitive activities involve mental processes that operate over real time on internal, symbolic representations of information.
That is, information of all sorts is coded as mental representations with structural properties.
Any stimulus that is seen for the first time, new designer furniture, for instance, the processes involved in perception makes a mental representation of that furniture.
Q 9 Rational emotive behaviour therapy
Ans:Rational emotive behaviour therapy:
Rational emotive behaviour therapy was originally called ‘Rational Therapy’, soon changed to ‘Rational Emotive Therapy’ and again in the early 1990’s to ‘Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy’.
The basic theory and practice of rational emotive therapy was formulated by Albert Ellis in 1962. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The practice of REBT mainly focuses on emotional-behavioural functioning of humans and how these can be modified if required.
The central hypothesis is the concept that not events, but how these events are interpreted by the individual that force people to have emotional behavioural reactions.
Rational emotive behaviour therapy, also posits that a person’s biology also affects their feelings and behaviours as individuals have inborn tendencies to react to events in certain patterns that may not necessarily be influenced by the environmental factors.
The persons belief pattern or system is considered to be influenced by the biological inheritance of the persons as well as his/her learning throughout life.
Q 10 Child rights in India.
Ans:Child rights in India: Children’s rights are human rights that are accustomed explicitly to the children needs,wants and overall well-being.
They take into account their fragility, specificities and age-appropriate requirements. Children’s rights aim to take into account the necessity of the development of a child.
India, in its bid to become an ethical labour market to international corporations in 1991, ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Children in 1992.
The Convention stems from Jebb’s desire to end the suffering of children, giving them instead a healthy, happy and safe environment that nurtured them physically, mentally, and emotionally.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
These facets find a strong resonance in the Convention. Child rights go beyond just human rights, which exist to ensure fair and proper treatment of people across the world, and promote their well-being.
Our Indian government has also done commendable work in this direction. The most suitable example of it, is making primary education free and compulsory for every child.
Making child labour a criminal offence is another great work by the Indian Government. We should also stand in support of Child Rights.BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Q 11 Techniques and usage of art therapy.
Ans:Techniques and usage of art therapy: Art therapy is a modality emerged from the interacting of art, creativity and psychotherapy.
It uses art media to express internal images, feelings, thoughts and sensations in a concrete form.BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022
It provides the opportunity for non verbal expression and communication, which can assist in improving the client’s functional abilities and resolving emotional issues.
The use of art as therapy implies that the creative process can be a means both of reconciling emotional conflicts and of fostering self awareness and personal growth.
The use of art can be traced all throughout history, from prehistoric eras to the present, but art therapy first received significant attention due to the theories of Freud and Jung.
These psychologists believed in the importance of symbolism, which is very prominent in art forms. BPCS 184 Free Solved Assignment
Art therapy is based on the idea that the creative process of art making is healing and life enhancing and is a form of nonverbal communication of thoughts and feelings.
It is the therapeutic use of art making, within a professional relationship, by people who experience illness, trauma, or challenges in living, and by people who seek personal development. BPCS 184 Solved Free Assignment 2022