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BPSE 145

DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST INDIA

BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 1. Discuss the formation of Northeast India as a region.

Ans. In the early 19th century, the Ahom and the Manipur kingdoms ruling over the

northeast were taken over by Burmese invasions there were three Burmese invasions

of Assam between 1817 and 1826. during which the Ahom and Manipur kingdom came

under the control of Burma. Then in the 19th century, the British fought the first

Anglo-Burmese War with Burma; which ended in the British’s victory. This period is

also referred to as the Colonial period.

During the British reign, North East India became a part of Bengal Province. In the

early 20th century, the northeastern states were established and became isolated

from their traditional trading partners Bhutan and Myanmar. The British also made

some of the communities of present-day Mizoram, Nagaland, and Meghalaya convert to

Christianity. This is the region majority of the present community in these regions

are Christians.BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Post-independence, the Northeastern region consists of only Assam and the princely

states of Manipur and Tripura. Nagaland, Meghalaya, Arunachal, Mizoram were part of

the larger territory of Assam. They subsequently got separated and formed their own

state. The states of Tripura and Manipur were Union Territories till 1972 till they

attained statehood. Prior to 2002, Sikkim was not a part of the northeast. During

British rule, the city of Shillong served as the capital of the Assam province. It

served as the capital of undivided Assam until Meghalaya separated to form its own

state in 1972. Post Meghalaya’s separation, the capital of Assam was shifted to

Dispur whereas Shillong became the capital of present-day Meghalaya.

During World War II, Japan planned an attack on India from Burma. This resulted in

two battles- The battle of Kohima and the Battle of Imphal. The Battle of Imphal

took place around the city of Imphal from March to July 1944. As a result of the

battle, the Japanese armies were defeated and sent back to Burma with heavy losses.

The Battle of Kohima was fought from 4 April to 22 June 1944 around the town of

Kohima, which also resulted in the defeat of the Japanese troops.

The Sino-Indian War, also known as the Indo-China War, was a war fought between

China and India, which occurred in 1962. The war was a result of the disputed

Himalayan border and China’s attempt to claim Arunachal Pradesh as South Tibet.

During the war, the people’s Republic of China captured a major part of the North-

East Frontier Agency was created by India in 1954. However, on 21 November 1962, China

declared a ceasefire and withdrew its troops 20 kilometers behind the McMahon Line,

and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963.

The state of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland,

Meghalaya is popularly termed as The Seven Sister States. The new states were

inaugurated in January 1972 and subsequently, the “seven sister states” term was

coined to address them. They are termed as seven sisters due to their

interdependence on each other. The nickname gained popularity after the publication

of a book on the Seven Sisters with the name “Land of seven sisters”. The name is

still very much popular among the masses. Sikkim formed part of the North-Eastern

The region as the eighth state in 2002 and is referred to as the only brother of the

seven sisters.BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 2. Explain the main features of the VI Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

Ans. The Sixth Schedule was originally intended for the predominantly tribal areas

(tribal population over 90%) of undivided Assam, which was categorized as “excluded

areas” under the Government of India Act, 1935 and was under the direct control of

the Governor. BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution provides for the administration of tribal

areas in Assam Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram to safeguard the rights of the tribal

population in these states.BPSE 145 Free Solved Assignment

This special provision is provided under Article 244(2) and Article 275(D) of the

Constitution

The Sixth Schedule provides for autonomy in the administration of these areas

through Autonomous District Councils (ADCs).

These councils are empowered to make laws in respect of areas under their

jurisdiction, which covers the land, forest, cultivation, inheritance, indigenous

customs and traditions of tribals, etc. and also to collect land revenues and

certain other taxes.BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

ADCs are like miniature states having specific powers and responsibilities in

respect of all the three arms of governance: Legislature, executive and judiciary.

On 27 August 2020, the Arunachal Pradesh state legislative assembly unanimously

passed a resolution to bring the entire state under the Sixth Schedule of the

Indian Constitution. This Schedule currently makes special provisions for the

administration of tribal areas in the north-eastern states of Assam, Tripura,

Meghalaya, and Mizoram. Most laws passed by the legislative assemblies in these

states do not apply to tribal areas; instead, these areas are governed by

autonomous Councils, which have wide-ranging powers to make laws on land, forest

management, agriculture, village administration and personal matters.

In the Constituent Assembly of India, J.J.M. Nichols Roy spearheaded the demand for

autonomous governance in the tribal regions. Roy, a tribal from the Khasi hills in

present-day Meghalaya, informed the Assembly about the apprehensions of hill tribes

about living under the newly-formed Indian State. He proposed to address their

concerns by creating the Sixth Schedule, which would give them the right to self-

governance in accordance with their traditions. Roy’s proposal was opposed by his

fellow member from Assam, Rohini Kumar Chaudhari, who wanted to assimilate tribals

into the non-tribal population. Chaudhari argued that the Sixth Schedule continued

the British policy of preventing the tribal population from mingling with other

Indians. Both Kulahad Chaliha and B. Das supported Chaudhari and also argued that

the Sixth Schedule had the potential to instigate communism. Das fervently

contended that Roy’s proposal was “in continuation of the ‘two-nation theory”

He stated: BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

“Sir, I hate the provision of Sixth Schedule whereby you are perpetuating primitive

conditions of life… The British spies through help of British and American

missions and Communists are coming through these tribal areas and for that Reverend

Nichols-Roy will be held responsible.”

Roy began his rejoinders by debunking the myth of tribal inferiority. He stated

that the hill tribes have a rich tradition of treating individuals as equal,

especially women, and upholding the dignity of labour. Their cultural settings and

eating habits were devoid of caste and communalism. Such concepts, he argued, were

in their nascent stages among non-tribals.

Citing the Gandhian principles of self-governance and love, Roy conveyed that the

hill tribes could not be won over by force; instead, allowing them to govern

themselves would bind them with the nation. Roy also argued from a national

security perspective, pointing out that the Indian borders could only be secured by

earning the allegiance of the hill tribes. Further, he stated that the Sixth

The schedule represented a compromise as the tribal regions still remained under the

control of the Governor of Assam…: BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Gopinath bordoloi the premier of Assam, also supported Rog’s proposa de Faialfhere

are tenant institutions among these hill tribals which, in my opinion, are so good

that, if we wanted to destroy them, I considered it to be very wrong… (such as

the manner in which they settle their disputes. [and] their village administration.

In other words, they are exercising a certain amount of autonomy which, 1 thought,

and the members of the Tribal Sub-Committee thought, should be preserved rather

than destroyed. What is necessary for good government is already there.”

Ultimately, Roy’s proposal, which was backed by the Chairman of the Drafting

Committee B.R. Ambedkar was accepted. The Sixth Schedule was added to the Indian

Constitution on 7th September 1949.

Currently, there are ten regions under the Sixth Schedule spread across four

northeastern states. Arunachal Pradesh Chief Minister Pema Khandu has warned that

tribal culture in his state will be lost if the state is not brought under the

Sixth Schedule. It remains to be seen whether the Central Government will accede to

this demand. BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 3. Discuss the significance of migration in Norteast India.

Ans. Northeast total is the aggregate of migrants from all regions, while the

national average indicated the reasons for migration among interstate and

international migrants. The national average shows marriage as the most important

reason for migration, followed by moved with household and work. Migration to

Northeast has mainly moved with household and for work. Marriage is the third

important reason for migrating to Northeast. About onethird of migrants from East,

South and Central India have moved for work, as compared to just 9.0% of

international migrants stating work as reason for migration. Forty percent of

international migrants have moved with family.

Migration can be linked with various factors. In the context of North East of

India, population dynamism is one such factor. There has been a high growth rate of

population in these regions, of over 45 million. It is characterized by

underdeveloped agrarian economy with a very backward industrial sector and on the

other hand a very inflated service sector. Even so, agriculture remains the

backbone of the economy and is dominated by shifting cultivation. Migration may

take place within the same district, between rural and urban; within the same

state, between rural and rural or urban and urban; another state or even another

country. There are numerous reasons why people migrate from their own homes, a

search for employment or better employment. He will take a glimpse of the migration

story and relate it with employment at different education levels and different

statuses of the employed workforce. We will look at only one time period using the NSS

55th round and analyze the patterns of migration in the North East Region. We use

binary logistic regression to find out the likelihood or probability ratio of the

migration due to employment-related reasons at different education levels, different

statuses of workers, and different social groups.

peasantry class D Assamewho had prepared the platform named Raij-mels for resisting

the oppressive acts of the British. Gradually, the educated middle class came up

with such organizations as the Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha and the Tezpur Ryot Sabha.

The Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha was formed as early as 1884 in order to represent the

rising aspirations of the people to the British Government. Some other

organizations were formed later, namely, the Assam Association in 1903, the Upper

Assam Association in 1880, the Shillong Association, the Nowgong Ryot Sabha, the

Sylhet Association, and the Assam Chatra Sanmilan, etc. These associations had been

instrumental in awakening a sense of national consciousness and political awareness

at the early stage of political activity in the state. It prepared the ground for

the growth of similar political organizations such as numerous interest groups and

political parties. Mention may be made of some of the important regional political

parties in the state of Assam. The Plain Tribal Council of Assam (PTCA) was one of

the first regional political parties, which was a conglomerate of different tribal

organizations of the then composite state Assam. It was formed in 1966 with the

demand of a separate state of – Udayachal for the indigenous scheduled castes and

tribes under the leadership of Samar Brahma Choudhary and Charan Narzary. It

continued its crusade for several years. Meanwhile, the All Bodo Student’s Union’s

acceptance of the offer for a Territorial Council under the 6th Schedule of the

Indian constitution undermined the role of the

BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022
BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 4. Highlight the characteristics of a regional party in Northeast India.

Ans. North-East India (NEI) had several socio-political institutions which are

mostly traditional in nature even before India’s independence from colonial

rule. The state of Assam by virtue of its geographical location, invariably

and strategically remains at the center of North-East Politics and has been

historically affecting the other states in the region. It could be mentioned that

initial enthusiasm and interest were shown by the regional political parties. In 1980, Assam

The movement had changed the contours of state politics. It started on a volatile issue

of illegal immigrants from neighboring Bangladesh.

Assam Gana Sangram Parisad (AGSP) was formed to spearhead the movement. This

political organization mostly led by students and the middle class later on was

transformed into a political party, namely, the Assam Gana Parishad (AGP) and ruled

the state for several terms. The other important regional political parties in the

state are the All India United Democratic Front (AIUDF) and the Bodo People’s Front

(BPF). In Meghalaya and Mizoram too, there were several al political parties in

Meghalaya was the All Party Hill Leaders Conference (APHLC) formed on regional

political parties formed from time to time for representing their interests and

grievances. One of the prominent and powerful regions on July 6, 1960, on the issue of

imposition of Assamese as the state’s official language. The party launched a mass

protest demanding separation of tribal belts from the then composite state of

Assam. Amongst the other notable regional parties are the People’s Democratic Front

(PDF), the Hill State People’s Democratic Party (HSPDP), the Khun Hynniewtrep

National Awakening Movement (KHNAM), and the Garo National Council (GNC). The state

of Mizoram has witnessed the rise and fall of several regional political parties at

different periods of time. The Mizo Union happened to be the oldest regional political

party in the state. The party was formed against the despotic rule of the Mizo

Chiefs and campaigned vigorously for allowing the commoners to participate in

politics during the British rule. It may be worthwhile to mention some of the

regional political parties in Mizoram in the present times as well as in the past:

the Tribal Union (TU), the Mara Freedom Party (MFP), the Mizo Integration Party

(MIP), the Mizo Labour Party (MLP), the Kalai National Council (KNC), the United

Pang People’s Party (UPPP), the Chakma Jatiya Parishad (CJP), and the Mizo National

Union (MNU) and to this list, another half dozen of regional political parties can

be added. The tiny Himalayan State of Sikkim can be distinguished from most of the

other states by virtue of being ruled by regional political parties for a long

period of time, precisely since the days of its integration with India.

The Sikkim Sangram Parishad (SSP) and Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) have been at

the helms of affairs for more than a decade in Sikkim.

So far as party politics in Tripura and Manipur are

concerned, there are some regional political parties functioning from the early

days of the grant of statehood. But most of the time, the CPI(M) in Tripura? and

Congress (INC) in Manipur have dominated the electoral politics of these two

states. The growth and success of regional political parties rely largely upon

emotive and emergent issues that concern the socio-political and economic interests

of particular groups. The Assam Gana Parisad (AGP) has been a glaring illustration

of such phenomena. It was an outgrowth of the long-drawn Assam Movement against the

catastrophic flow of illegal Bangladeshi immigrants into Assam. It claimed that

this has threatened the very existence of the indigenous population. In Nagaland,

similarly, there were a good number of state-based parties formed after the

elevation of the Hill District to a full-fledged state in 1963. However, most of

them admittedly did not have an enduring impact on the political horizon of the

state. But the Naga People Front (NFP) have made an unprecedented and strong inroad

and in the subsequent election scripted spectacular successes in the state politics

of the nation. BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 5. Identify the main characteristics of autonomy movements in Northeast India.

Ans. Autonomy movement and development are two important terminologies in

literature of Political Science at present and they are correlated in many aspects.

In fact, the desire for political autonomy originated in the quest for economic

development and this very issue is quite relevant in the autonomy movement of the

Sixth Schedule area of North East India. The evolution of the Sixth Schedule

the provision in the constitution of India is due to the tribal desire for political

autonomy and their quest for economic development. The tribal areas of the then

undivided Assam or the present North-East India, classified as Excluded and

The partially Excluded areas were independent and autonomous in political setup in

pre-British period; because the tribal chiefs governed their respective territories

without outside interference and they were independent in their own rights. As the

British administration guaranteed limited autonomy to the tribal chiefs in tune

with their psychology, they (Tribal chiefs) were satisfied with the internal

autonomy guaranteed to them and they acted as if they were autonomous in their

status. BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

As a matter of fact, that autonomous status was expected by tribals of the Excluded

and Partially Excluded areas in the post-independent era which was vested under the

responsibilities of the Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights by the Constituent

Assembly of India. The Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights further constituted

three Sub-Committees; out of which, the North-East Frontier (Assam) Tribal and

Excluded Area Committee under the Chairmanship of Gopinath Bordoloi, the Premier of

Assam dealt with the constitutional status of tribals of Excluded and Partially

Excluded of Undivided Assam. Subsequently, the tribals of undivided Assam were

facilitated with the provision of the Sixth Schedule to quench their thirst for

political autonomy so as to enable them to implement development works in their

respective areas. Thus, the tribals’ desire for autonomy and economic development

are the main factors for the emergence of the Sixth Schedule to the constitution of

India. Autonomy movement and development are two important terminologies in

the literature of Political Science at present and they are correlated in many aspects.

In fact, the desire for political autonomy originated in the quest for economic

development and this very issue is quite relevant in the autonomy movement of the

Sixth Schedule area of North East India. The evolution of the Sixth Schedule

provision in the constitution of India is due to the tribal desire for political

autonomy and their quest for economic development.

The tribal areas of the then undivided Assamlör present North-East India

classified as Excluded and the Partially Excluded area was independent and autonomous

in political set-up in pre-British period; because the tribal chiefs governed their

respective territories without outside interference and they were independent in

their own rights. As the British administration guaranteed limited autonomy to the

tribal chiefs in tune with their psychology, they (Tribal chiefs) were satisfied

with the internal autonomy guaranteed to them and they acted as if they were

their status. As a matter of fact, that autonomous status was expected by tribals

of the Excluded and Partially Excluded areas in the post-independent era which was

vested under the responsibilities of the Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights by

the Constituent Assembly of India. The Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights

further constituted three Sub-Committees; out of which, the North East Frontier

(Assam) Tribal and Excluded Area Committee under the Chairmanship of Gopinath

Bordoloi, the Premier of Assam dealt with the constitutional status of tribals of

Excluded and Partially Excluded of Undivided Assam. Subsequently, the tribals of

undivided Assam were facilitated with the provision of the Sixth Schedule to quench

their thirst for political autonomy so as to enable them to implement development

works in their respective areas. Thus, the tribals’ desire for autonomy and

economic development are the main factors for the emergence of the Sixth Schedule

to the constitution of India. Soon after independence, India’s northeastern region

was swamped in a series of conflicts starting with the Naga secessionist movement

in the 1950s, followed by others in the 1960s. The conflicts intensified and

engulfed the entire region in the 1970s and 1980s. However, in the 1990s, following

the reclamation of ethnic identities amid gnawing scarcities, the conflicts slowly

turned into internal feuds. Consequently, alliance and re-alliance among the ethnic

groups transpired. In the 2000s, it finally led to the balkanization of ethnicity-

based autonomy movements in the region. Unfortunately, the state’s ad-hoc measures

failed to contain protected conflicts and, instead, compounded the situation and

swelled hybrid ethnic identities.BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The presence of outsiders or unchecked flow of foreigners to North East India is

another major factor responsible for the politics of the identity movement in North East

India. So far as the migration to North East India is concerned its beginning can

be dated back to the British colonial period and it is continuing till today in a

unchecked way especially from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bihar, Nepal, Odissa, etc.

Though there take certain measures for the deportation and detection of foreigners

from time to time the deportation of foreigners from North East India remains

a utopia. Such unchecked population to North East India poses a great threat

such as demographic imbalance, economic deprivation, political unrest and

instability, employment problem, socio-cultural and linguistic threats towards the

people of North East India. As a result, various ethnic groups of North East India

become conscious for losing their own distinctive lingo-cultural and ethnic

identity and started identity movements.

Displacement of tribal People is one of the burning questions of today’s politics

of North East India. It is held responsible for the growth of the politics of identity

movement in North East India. It is because when the industry was set up in a tribal

area, the people were evicted from their land and their land was being

requisitioned. But there was a little effort to rehabilitate them. For example, in

1932 more than 1000 tribal people Udalguri (Assam) were evacuated in order to

establish the Dhansiri irrigation project. According to a survey organized by the

Tribal Research Institute A large number of villagers that they b have neither

received any compensation nor any alternative land due to acquisition.

Q. 6. Discuss the significance of Autonomous District Councils.

Ans. Autonomous district councils have powers to levy taxes, fees and tolls on;

building and Tand, animals, vehicles, boats, entry of goods into the area, roads,

ferries, bridges, employment and income, and general taxes for the maintenance of

schools and roads. The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the

formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy

within their respective states. Most of these autonomous district councils are

located in North East India but two are in Ladakh, a region administered by India

as a union territory. Presently, 10 Autonomous Councils in Assam, Meghalaya,

Mizoram and Tripura are formed by virtue of the Sixth Schedule with the rest being

formed as a result of other legislation.

Q. 7. Analyze the role of women in new social movements in Northeast India.

Ans. North East India is a region that always remained aloof from the rest of the

country due to the marginalization of the region from mainland India. When the

whole country was celebrating women empowerment and women’s rights because of the

various women’s movements, no one looked at the heroic women’s movement of the

North East. North East India has also seen strong women’s movements raising their

voices against injustice and bringing change in society. From Assam, Mizoram,

Manipur and Nagaland have some of the strongest and must-know women’s movements

that challenged the patriarchy and raised voices against social injustices.

Let us discuss a few of such movements:

Nupi Lan/Lal which means Women’s War (in Manipuri) first started in 1904 against

the British order in Manipur. The heirs apparent of the former ruling family were

not happy with the selection of Chura Chand Singh as the King by the British. So,

they stirred up the first Nupi Lan. Later the main agenda of Nupi Lan was to raise

voice against the British order of the Lalup (a form of forced labor where the male

members of the society within the age group of 17-60 would work freely for 10 days

in the period of every 40 days) system to rebuild the then Police Agent’s Bungalow

after it was destroyed by fire. The women protested against this since the male

members had to suffer, the women had to face various socio-economical obstacles.

Meira Paibi was another women’s movement that started in the late 1970s to control the

social order and gendered violence occurring due to alcoholism and drug abuse.

Meira Paibi (meaning the torch bearers – the Meira symbolizes the declaration of

war) presently aims to protect human rights in their community and fight against

the injustices of AFSPA (Armed Force Special Protection Act).

Irom Sharmila’s movement against AFSPA (Armed Force Special Protection Act) has

been as long as almost 16 years now, though recently she broke her fast to fight

elections against Okarm Ibibo in Manipur. She started her fast as early as November

2000 after she witnessed Assam Rifles personnel gunning down 10 people including

teenage students under AFSPA. She was arrested several times under Section 309 for

an attempt at suicide which she always denied and has been force-fed.

Q. 8. Highlight the relationship between lethnicity and politics of recognition

Ans. The politics of northeast India is marked by ethnicity and extremism for a

long time. The assertion of various ethnic identities and the attitude of the state

in containing ethnic extremism make the region distinct from the rest of India. The

root cause of ethnic assertion can be found in the identity crisis of various

tribal communities that extend over the territorial boundaries drawn by the Indian

nation-state. Most of the ethnic assertions are due to ethnic groups’ desperate

attempts to protect their identity, culture, and language. For instance, it is

argued that “claims to ethnonationalism of the Bodos can be interpreted as closely

intertwined with issues of institutional and social exclusion based on language

politics” (Saikia, 2011: 60). In other words, the basis of ethnic assertion can be

seen in two contexts. Firstly, the tribal communities’ subjective consciousness of

being excluded, oppressed and marginalized. Secondly, the process of development

failed to address the legitimate concerns of the people. Though after independence

the Indian state tried to integrate and assimilate various ethnic communities in

the mainstream national identity, the development process generated a feeling of

alienation among them. Moreover, development led to the unequal distribution of

resources across the communities and regions. Thus, both non-economic (subjective

consciousness) BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 9. What was “Crown Colony”? Discuss.

Ans. As India was inching towards freedom, the idea of a Crown Colony for the hills

of North East (NE) India germinated in the minds of the departing colonial rulers.

This article outlines the secret proposal of a Britishadministrated Crown Colony

and the circumstances prevailing in the remote borderlands of India at that point.

This Crown Colony would have included all tribal areas of NE India as well as the

contagious tribal areas of Burma. As such, most of the tribal areas of the NE,

mainly the hills of the province of Assam, were classified as ‘Excluded’ or

Partially Excluded Areas’ and the British administrators, having developed an

admiration for the tribal people due to their long association, were reluctant to

put them under far-away Delhi. Therefore, a Crown Colony, like Singapore, Hong

Kong, Aden or Gibraltar, on the eastern periphery of India, consisting of tribal

areas from Indian and Burma, ruled by benign and tribal-loving British

administrators, was achievable. The idea gained considerable traction in the

British bureaucracy, from Delhi to Whitehall, and some support among the tribal

people. The plan finally did not succeed but was a near miss. It would have

significantly changed the map of India and Burma, and challenged the very idea of a

diverse India. The article is a narration of this Crown Colony that never was.

Q. 10. Write a note on Sikkim.

Ans. Sikkim, the state of India, is located in the northeastern part of the country, in

the eastern Himalayas. It is one of the smallest states in India. Sikkim is

bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and northeast, by

Bhutan to the southeast, by the Indian state of West Bengal to the south, and by

Nepal to the west. The capital is Gangtok, in the southeastern part of the state.

Long a sovereign political entity, Sikkim became a protectorate of India in 1950

and an Indian state in 1975. Its small size notwithstanding, Sikkim is of great

political and strategic importance for India because of its location along several

international boundaries. Area 2,740 square miles (7,096 square km).

Sikkim is a basin surrounded on three sides by precipitous mountain walls. There is

little lowland, and the variation in relief is extreme. Within a stretch of roughly

50 miles (80 km), the land rises from an elevation of about 750 feet (225 meters)

in the Tista River valley to nearly 28,200 feet (8,600 meters at Kanchenjunga,

India’s highest peak and the world’s third-highest mountain. The Singalila Range

separates Sikkim from Nepal in the west, while the Dongkya Range forms the border

with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the east. Several passes across this

range afford easy access to the Chumbi valley in Tibet and, beyond the valley, to

the Tibetan capital of Lhasa. BPSE 145 Solved Free Assignment 2022

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