INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION
MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1. Technology, especially social media has often been found to spread misinformation and fake news. Use any two media society theories to explain the media audience relationship and prevalence of fake news and information.
Ans:– Though Social media has become almost an inevitable part of our society now, we can’t always depend on it.
The spreading of misinformation in social media is not new. Every day we read bunches of things online on social media, which may happen to be true, often is not.
This false or misinformation leads to fake news i.e. consisted of fabricated stories, without any verifiable facts, sources, or quotes.
Those stories are forged to influence reader’s own opinions or to deceive them.
The question of fake news refers to the point of how to think about the nature of real news.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
In the last few years, numbers of fake news stories have increased via social media platforms like What’s App, Facebook, YouTube, etc., because they are shared online faster than we can ever imagine.
There have been varied uses of the term Fake news in different reporting of news. During the second half of 2016, the term was searched tremendously by people shown in a Google Trends Map.
Most of the time Fake news conflates three different notions: misinformation, disinformation, and mal -information.
Misinformations are false information, but when a person conveys it, believes that it is true and shares.
Disinformation is those which are shared intentionally by a person after knowing that it is true.
On the other hand, information based on reality but imposes harm on a person, organization, or country is termed as mal -information. After putting all of them together, we call it fake news.
This information disorder consists of different forms like satire, false connection, misrepresentation of facts, imposter content, manipulated content, fabricated content, and memes.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
There are mainly two reasons for sharing fake news on social media.
Some people spread it for political, ideological, or business interests, some also spread it for fun. But they do it with an intention.
However, again fake news is shared without knowing it’s fake by some people, but with a motive.
The motive can be varied from person to person. Few of them think sharing the information before others gives them a sense of pride.
While others think they must let people know about the importance of news and some commit it for fun.
Are we given enough contemplation before sharing information? Is it fake or real? Are we looking at an original piece of content? When and who created this content? Why is the content being shared? Why should we share it?
No, usually people never give a second thought before sharing content on social media.
After receiving content like violent video clips, images, memes, etc. people forget to verify about fake or real.
It happens because at that moment the only thing that triggers on people’s minds is to let the people know about the content and its consequences.
There are very few different cases with some, who inquire ” is the content fake?”
However, here the problem lies with the human mind and the fake news. Our brains have a limited capability for processing information and for remembering, so the brain makes judgments on what to keep.
Looking into that fact, the contents which are more familiar to people, or it has an impact on people due to some previous personal issues are especially shared in social media.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
Certainly, at that moment the brain can recall the previous effect of that content and without giving a second thought frequently passes the judgments.
During this COVID-19 period, there are varieties of fake news on COVID-19 which are spreading in social media and among the people very speedily.
From offering unvaried home remedies to tackle the virus to floating fake advisories asking people to avoid food such as ice cream and chicken, sharing conspiracy theories, Indian’s phones are being flooded with misinformation.
Even Prime Minister Narendra Modi also requested the citizens not heed to the rumours surrounding Covid-19.
There are different ways to identify fake news and stay accurately informed.
It frequently has a clear bias, and it may strive to inspire anger or other strong feelings from the reader.
Such content may come from unfamiliar news sources so here verification is the most important way.
We have to verify the fake news by both traditional verification methods or online verification tools process.
The traditional verification method specifically means getting on to the primary source and verify it.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
It can be sourced or emailing the person/organization and also by reading different original documents concerned to the news.
After that, we have to cross-check the information with at least one more source and apply this method also regarding online verification.
Likewise, there are certain tools and techniques for online verification methods. Again to verify an image/photo, to know it’s fake or real we can do a Reverse Image Search in Google or any Search engine by using the image.
It can tell if the image is used earlier.
It also shows how old the image is, and if it has been used before for other contexts.
Also, if any fact-checker has reported about the matter already, that story will appear too.
The same process is also used to verify a video clip of fake news.
Though there are different ways to prevent fake news in social media, sometimes they are not enough.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
Because there are no editors in social media to allow the spread of any content without verifying it.
So, if an option like, ” Is the content real?” will appear before sharing content may be more helpful to people. But we social media users also have to play an important role.
Instead of demanding the social media companies to take the necessary steps, we can be the editors ourselves by learning the research process of checking the truth behind the fake content.
Personal responsibility is the first and fundamental step to protect our society from this fake content.
Q 2. Radio, TV and print have all converged into online. Present an analysis of the factors that propelled growth then and now and what are the new job avenues that have been created as a result of online proliferation? Cite industry reports.
Ans:- 1. You reach large audiences
There are millions of people using social media platforms. It’s a great opportunity for your business to reach a large pool of people that are interested in your products or services.
According to Pew Research Center, these are the percentages of U.S. adults that use social media sites online or on mobile:
➢ YouTube: 73% ➢ Facebook: 68% ➢ Instagram: 35% ➢ Pinterest: 29% ➢ Snapchat: 27%
➢ LinkedIn: 25%
(2. You have a direct connection with your audience
Social media is one of the few marketing strategies that allow you to connect directly with your audience.
You know who is interested in your business because they choose to follow your social media account.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
This social media advantage helps your business in numerous ways:
You get to know them better: When you know your audience better, you can deliver more valuable content to them.
You make the content more personalized to their interests, which leads to more engagement on your page and with your business.
You provide better customer service: A direct connection with your audience allows you to resolve issues easier.
You can address them personally, deal with their issues 1-on-1, and build your brand in a positive light in the process.
You gain valuable insight about your customers: The direct connection with your audience helps you get to know your audience better.
You see who interacts with your posts and how they interact with them.
It helps you adapt your strategy to make it better for your followers.
You see how your audience perceives your business: It’s always good to know how others view your business. With social media marketing, you know what your audience thinks of your company.
It’s a huge advantage of social media marketing because you can capitalize on aspects people like about your business and fix elements they don’t like.
(3. You can create organic content
The ability to post organic content for free is an incredible benefit of social media for business.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
This opens many opportunities for your company to connect with valuable leads at no cost. It’s one of the reasons why companies love using these platforms.
You can post as much content as you want to engage your audience too.
These platforms enable you to post photos, videos, and more, depending upon the social media network.
It’s a great way to put your brand out in front of people interested in your business and help them get more familiar with it.
(4. You have access to paid advertising services
If you want to go beyond organic posting, there is an option to run paid advertisements.
Each social platform offers its own form of paid advertising. Your social media advertising capabilities will vary depending upon your platform.
(5. You build your brand
One advantage of social media marketing is the ability to build your brand. When you connect with interested leads, you expose them to your brand.
The ability to post organic content for free allows you to build brand recognition repeatedly with your audience.
This builds brand loyalty. The more people get exposed to your brand, the more they become familiar with it.
Brand familiarity leads to more conversions down the line because people tend to buy from brands they know well.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
(6. You drive traffic to your website
Social media is a great catalyst for driving traffic to your business’s website.
Most social media platforms allow you to post content with a link to your website.
When you create compelling content, you can entice your audience click on the link. This directs them to your site, where they can learn more about your business.
It’s a great opportunity for you to help your audience get more familiar with your business.
They can check out your website and learn about your products and services.
(7. You can evaluate your performance
The last advantage to social media marketing is the ability to assess your performance. Whenever you run a marketing campaign, you want to know how it’s performing.
Social media platforms make it easy for you to track your campaign to see if you’re driving valuable results.
(8. You can join social media networks for free
One of the biggest advantages of social media marketing is that it is entirely free to start.
None of the largest platforms have signup fees of any sort, so the only investment you’ll need to make is in the form of time.
The types of media are the different channels through which information and entertainment reach an audience.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
Media often includes the content itself as well as the physical device needed to transmit it, such as television programming and a television.
You can divide media into four distinct categories:
➢ Print media: Print media refers to printed materials, such as books and magazines, that contain words and images.
➢ Broadcast media: Broadcast media includes information transmitted through one of several mass communication channels, such as television and radio.
➢ Internet media: Internet media is content distributed online and can include emails and online publications.
➢ Out-of-home media: Out-of-home media, or OOH, is media that reaches people when they are outside of their homes, like billboards.
Q 3. Select any two language dailies of your choice. Write a critical review of the city page and nation page while comparing the two on the following parameters:
a. Their sources
b. Comparison of their level of objectivity and balanced reporting
c. Comparison of their leads or opening para
Ans: – News portal :- money control
Northeast will become driver of India’s growth: PM Modi
The Northeast will become the driver of India’s growth story, he said, after dedicating to the nation and laying the foundation stone for 22 development projects worth Rs 4,815 crore in Manipur.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi Tuesday accused the previous governments in New Delhi of neglecting the Northeast, as he launched a raft of development projects ahead of the assembly elections due in the state early next year.
The Northeast will become the driver of India’s growth story, he said, after dedicating to the nation and laying the foundation stone for 22 development projects worth Rs 4,815 crore in Manipur.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
Kicking off the BJP’s campaign for the assembly elections, the prime minister inaugurated an Integrated Command and Control Centre for the Imphal Smart City Mission, development of western river front on Imphal river, an industrial training institute (ITI) and a 200-bed semi-permanent Covid hospital, among others.
Modi also laid the foundation stone of five national highway construction projects, government residential quarters, Manipur Institute of Performing Arts, Centre for Invention, Innovation, Incubation and Training (CIIIT), the biggest PPP initiative in Manipur, a state-of-the-art cancer hospital, besides several other projects.
These projects are aimed at development of infrastructure and connectivity, skilling and employment of youth, renovation of places of historic and spiritual importance, and improvement of healthcare facilities. (With PTI inputs)
News portal :- Business standard
Northeast will become major driver of India’s growth: PM Modi in Manipur
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday said that the Northeastern states will become major drivers of India’s growth in the upcoming years with Manipur as the main source of the country’s growth trajectory.
While addressing the inauguration programme of developmental projects here, PM Modi said as Manipur will be completing 50 years of statehood on January 21,
the state “will become the main source of India’s growth trajectory and will stretch its potential to other parts of India via enhanced road connectivity and infrastructure projects.”MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
Adding that the Northeast is all set to become the “new gate of development” for the country, PM Modi said, “The Northeast, where Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose’s army hoisted the flag for the first time calling it the gateway to India’s independence, is now becoming the gateway to fulfil the dreams of New India.”
PM Modi inaugurated and laid the foundation stone of several developmental projects here today.
PM Modi inaugurated 13 Projects worth over Rs 1,850 crores and laid the foundation stone of nine projects worth around Rs 2,950 crore; spanning across sectors such as Road Infrastructure, Drinking Water Supply, Health, Urban Development, IT and more.
He also laid the foundation stone of construction of five National Highway Projects to be built at a cost of more than Rs 1,700 crore, with a cumulative length of more than 110 km. With ANI inputs
Q 4. OTT platforms host content that go an extra mile in building interactivity with the audience and make the experience more immersive. Analyse the features that make the medium special along with the data that shows its growth during the pandemic period.
Ans:- Another year has been lost to the pandemic, and various sectors such as real estate, hospitality and mobility are counting their losses and making projections of when they’re likely to attain their pre-Covid growth levels.
Amid this doom and gloom, the media and entertainment sector presents an encouraging picture.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
According to a recent report by the Confederation of Indian Industry and Boston Consulting Group, India’s media and entertainment industry has revived to pre-Covid levels and is expected to grow to $55-70 bn by 2030 at 10-12% CAGR, driven mainly by strong growth in OTT, gaming, animation and VFX.
The report explains that the media and entertainment industry contracted by 10% year-on-year in 2020, its market size decreasing from $26 bn in 2019, to around $24 bn in 2020.
This contraction was mainly due to a decline in advertising revenues across mediums such as print, television and radio.
However, digital led-consumption of OTT services and gaming are now driving the growth, helping the industry grow 12-16% year-on-year in 2021, to a market size of $27 bn.
Today, OTT has a 7-9% market share in India’s $27 bn M&E industry.
However, by 2030, its market share is expected to increase to 22%-25%. Meanwhile, television’s market share will decline from around 35% to 24%.
The growth in the number of Indian households with a Pay TV subscription, such as Tata Sky and Dish TV has more or less stabilised, only growing at 2%.
However, India is seeing a growth of 51% in the number of households with a subscription-based video-on-demand service or SVOD.
This growth in subscription-based OTT services offered by the likes of Netflix, Amazon’s Prime Video and Disney+ Hotstar can be attributed to the improved internet and smartphone penetration and payment mechanisms.
Most importantly, these players have made significant investments in content, pricing innovations and bundling to create niche properties.
Notably, streaming giants such as Netflix are offering their India plans at affordable prices, compared to the pricing plans for other geographies.
The CII-BCG report explains that the Indian pricing plans of global streaming giants are on average, 70-90% cheaper than their prices for the US market.
Increased market competition, with local OTT players also entering the fray, are driving this reduction in prices for OTT services. And global streaming giants are keeping their fingers crossed.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
In 2020, the global executives for Disney+ noted that the company’s India offering, Disney+ Hotstar, brought down its global average revenue per user (ARPU).
And last year, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings said that the company was ‘still figuring out the Indian market’, also calling it a ‘speculative investment’, comparing the Indian market of 2021 with the Japanese and South Korean markets of five years before.
As the experts pointed out, the Indian OTT industry has just started scaling up, and will continue to remain a high volume market.
Hence, expect more pricing experiments and bundling of OTT services with your mobile data plans as more global streaming players tap into the Indian market.
Devices Used for OTT streaming
➢ 89% of users stream videos via mobile devices.
➢ 58% of users stream videos via TV Apps.
Growth rates of devices for streaming content- 2020-2021
➢ Smart TVs experienced the biggest growth
➢ Tablets are being used 43% more often,
➢ Desktops are being used 38% more,
➢ Mobile phones are being used 29% more
Revenue in the OTT Video segment is projected to reach US$2,673m in 2022.
Revenue is expected to show an annual growth rate (CAGR 2022-2026) of 10.10%, resulting in a projected market volume of US$3,928m by 2026.
India has 353 million OTT users and 96 million active paid subscriptions, which translates into a penetration of 25.3% MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
Q 5. Conceptualise and plan an event for fund raising for paying the exam fees of girls who are about to appear in their board exams and their parents have lost their source of livelihood due to the pandemic.
Ans:- More than 3.7 million girls in India are out of school. Without an education, these girls remain socially and economically immobile and vulnerable to discrimination, with little hope for an independent future.
Gender inequality damages the physical and mental health of millions of girls and women across the globe, and also of boys and men despite the many tangible benefits it gives men through resources, power, authority and control.
Because of the numbers of people involved and the magnitude of the problems, taking action to improve gender equity in health and to address women’s rights to health is one of the most direct and potent ways to reduce health inequities and ensure effective use of health resources.
Deepening and consistently implementing human rights instruments can be a powerful mechanism to motivate and mobilize governments, people and especially women themselves.
Education Crowdfunding helps teachers, students and NGOs raise funds to buy classroom supplies, take children on special field trips and build toilets.
Crowdfunding can also provide funds for distributing daily meals, upgrade school infrastructures like gymnasium, play areas, classroom renovation and expansion. Online crowdfunding for education is gaining more and more recognition.
It is safe, easy and effective, and can reach a much larger pool of people in far less time. MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound impact, not only on people’s health, but also on how they learn, work and live.
Among the most important challenges created by COVID-19 is how to adapt a system of education built around physical schools.
At its peak, more than 188 countries, encompassing around 91% of enrolled learners worldwide, closed their schools to try to contain the spread of the virus.1 School closures have a very real impact on all students, but especially on the most vulnerable ones who are more likely to face additional barriers.
Children and youth from low-income and single-parent families; immigrant, refugee, ethnic minority and Indigenous backgrounds; with diverse gender identities and sexual orientations; and those with special education needs suffer by being deprived of physical learning opportunities, social and emotional support available in schools and extra services such as school meals.
They risk falling further behind and becoming isolated with school doors closed.
These students are likely to lose the most in terms of educational outcomes and the support provided by schools if countries take insufficient measures to promote educational equity and inclusion.
During the coronavirus crisis, many countries have been using digital pedagogical tools and virtual exchanges between students and their teachers, and among students, to deliver education as schools closed.
Vulnerable students might however have little access to such tools and require further attention and support.MJM 20 Free Solved Assignment
To respond to the challenges they face, countries have developed specific and sometimes innovative policy initiatives such as providing equitable and inclusive access to digital learning resources and good learning conditions, ensuring that socio-emotional needs are being met, offering equitable and inclusive access to extra services for vulnerable students, and ensuring support by and to teacher.
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