IGNOU MS 21 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Ignouassignmentfree

MS 21

Social Processes and Behavioural Issues

MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

MS 21 Free Solved Assignment July & Jan 2022

Q 1 Discuss and describe how social processes plays an important role in shaping human behviour.

Ans:-As a global player, India has not been able to match other industrialized countries in terms of ‘quality’ and ‘price’ of its products.

A review of industrial performance and productivity in developing countries found that between 1950 and 1982, India was one of the worst performers. India’s share in world trade declined from over 1% in 1950s to about 0.6% in 1990s.

Within Asia, it lost its pre-eminent position in industrial and economic spheres. On the social side, also, the country fared badly even in comparison with some of the neighbouring countries in South Asia.

The main reasons for the slow down of industrial growth are low productivity, high costs, low quality of production and obsolete technology. In post liberalization era however, Indian organisations have been gearing up to take the challenges head on.

The Indian economy has shown remarkable recovery during the last decade in terms of Macro Economic Indicators including the Foreign Direct Investments.

Several Indian organisations are in the process of transforming them-selves into multi-nationals and are on the path of becoming formidable global players.

The sustained competitive edge however, would call for meeting the following challenges. Socialization is important in the process of personality formation.

While much of human personality is the result of our genes, the socialization process can mold it in particular directions by encouraging specific beliefs and attitudes as well as selectively providing experiences. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

This very likely accounts for much of the difference between the common personality types in one society in comparison to another.

For instance, the Semai click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced tribesmen of the central Malay Peninsula of Malaysia typically are gentle people who do not like violent, aggressive individuals.

In fact, they avoid them whenever possible. In contrast, the Yanomamo click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced Indians on the border area between Venezuela and Brazil usually train their boys to be tough and aggressive.

Socialization is a learning process that begins shortly after birth. Early childhood is the period of the most intense and the most crucial socialization.

It is then that we acquire language and learn the fundamentals of our culture. It is also when much of our personality takes shape. However, we continue to be socialized throughout our lives.

As we age, we enter new statuses and need to learn the appropriate roles for them. We also have experiences that teach us lessons and potentially lead us to alter our expectations, beliefs, and personality.

For instance, the experience of being raped is likely to cause a woman to be distrustful of others. Most of the crucial early socialization throughout the world is done informally under the supervision of women and girls.

Initially, mothers and their female relatives are primarily responsible for socialization. Later, when children enter the lower school grades, they are usually under the control of women teachers.

In North America and some other industrialized nations, baby-sitters are most often teenage girls who live in the neighborhood. In other societies, they are likely to be older sisters or grandmothers.MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

This cross-cultural study of socialization is provocative. Perhaps, you are now asking yourself what methods you would use to control the behavior of your children.

Would you spank them or threaten to do so? Would you only use praise? Would you belittle or tease them for not behaving? Would you try to make your children independent and self-reliant or would you discourage it in favor of continuing dependence? At some time in our lives, most of us will be involved in raising children.

Will you do it in the same way that you were raised? Very likely you will because you were socialized that way.

Abusive parents were, in most cases, abused by their parents. Likewise, gentle, indulgent parents were raised that way themselves.

Is there a right or wrong way to socialize children? To a certain extent the answer depends on the frame of reference. What is right in one culture may be wrong in another.

Even seemingly insignificant actions of parents can have major impacts on the socialization of their children.

For instance, what would you do if your baby cried continuously but was not ill, hungry, or in need of a diaper change? Would you hold your baby, rock back and forth, walk around, or sing gently until the crying stopped, even if it took hours.

The answer that you give very likely depends on your culture. The traditional Navajo click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced Indian response usually was to remove the baby from social contact until the crying stopped.

After making sure that the baby was not ill or in physical distress, he or she would be taken outside of the small single room house and left in a safe place until the crying stopped. Then the baby would be brought indoors again to join the family.

Perhaps as a result, Navajo babies raised in this way are usually very quiet. They learn early that making noise causes them to be removed from social contact.

In most North American families today, we would hold our baby in this situation until the crying stopped MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

The agents of socialization help the process of learning. This leaming is the result of authoritarian and egalitarian forces.

The authoritarian forces are those which have an authority over the child. These include the parents, the family, the cultural factors and the prescriptions of law.

The egalitarian forces include the peer group, the playmates, friends and associates. These agents of socialization function as per the recognized pattems laid down by the society for conformity and deviation, or reward and punishment.

The main aim of socialization is to make the child learn and to make him conform to the established norms and behaviour patterns.

The growing child is brought up in the given conditions. One lcams the forms of conduct and behaviour in urdans with the accepted social practices, norms and values.

It is the first step towards culturisation of the child when he learns to identify himself with the existing environment.

The socializing agents condemn deviant action and behaviour of the child, but do not govern the later behaviour. The deviant behaviour of the child can not be ruledout.

MS 21 Free Solved Assignment
MS 21 Free Solved Assignment 2022

Q 2 Explain different sources of power and it’s influence on organisations. Briefly discuss how power is different from Authority and influence.

Ans :- Reward power: Reward power is an individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviour by rewarding their desirable behaviour.

Employees comply with requests and directives because of the authority of managers to grant rewards in the form of praise, promotions, salary increase, bonuses, and time-off. Reward power can lead to better performance,

but only as long as the employee sees a clear and strong link’between performance and rewards. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

Coercive power: Coercive power is an individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviour by means of punishment for undesirable behaviour.

For example, subordinates may comply because they expect to be punished for failure to respond favourably to managerial directives. Punishment may be major or minor, depending on the nature of omission or commission.

Legitimate Power: legitimate power most often refers to a manager’s ability to influence subordinates’ behaviour because of the manager’s position in the organisational hierarchy.

Subordinates may respond to such influence because they acknowledge the manager’s legitimate right to prescribe certain behaviours.

legitimate power is an important organisational concept. Typically, a manager is empowered to make decisions within a specific area of responsibility, such as quality control, accounting, human resource, marketing, and so on.

Expert power: Expert power is an individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviour because of recognised skills, talents, or specialised knowledge.

To the extent that managers can demonstrate competence in analysing, evaluating, controlling, and implementing the tasks of subordinates, they will acquire expert power.

Referent power: Referent power is an individual’s ability to influence others’ behaviour as a result of being liked or admired.

For instance, subordinates’ identification with a manager often forms the basis for referent power, This identification may include the desire of the subordinates to emulate the manager. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

Referent power is usually associated with the individuals who possess admired personality characteristics, charisma, or a good reputation.

Structural Sources of Power Much of the attention directed at power in organisations tends to focus on the power of managers over subordinates.

An additional perspective is that the characteristics of the situation affect or determine power. Important structural sources of power include knowledge, resources, decision making and networks.

Knowledge as power: Organisations are information processors that must use knowledge to produce goods and services.

The concept of knwledge as power means that individuals, teams, groups, or departments that possess knowledge are crucial in attaining the organisation’s goals.

Intellectual capital represents the knowledge, knowhow, and competency that exists in the organisation. This intellectual capital can provide an organisation with a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Resources as power: Organisations need a variety of resources, including money, human resources, equipment, materials, and customers to survive.

The importance of specific resources to an organisation’s success and the difficulty in obtaining them vary from situation to situation.

The departments, groups, or individuals who can provide essential or difficult-to-obtain resources acquire more power in the organisation than others.

Decision making as power: The decision making process in an organisation creates more or less power differences among individuals or groups. Managers exercise considerable power in an organisation simply because of their decision making ability.

Although decision making is an important aspect of power in every organisation, cultural differences make for some interesting differences in the relationship.

For example, in Chinese organisation, decision making power was more decentralised in manufacturing firms than in service organisations.

The reverse was true in British firms, with power being more decentralised in the service organisations than in the manufacturing firms.

Networks as power: The existence of structural and situational power depends not only on access to information, resources and decision making, but also on the ability to get cooperation in carrying out tasks. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

Managers and departments that have connecting links with other individuals and departments in the organisation will be more powerful than those who don’t have.

The term power is interwined with another concept, authority. But there is a difference between the two concepts. Power refers to the capacity to influence others.

The person who possesses power has the ability to manipulate or change the behaviour of others. Authority, on the other hand, is the source of power.

Authority is legitimate and it confers legitimacy to power. Power itself need not be legitimate. Authority exists where one person has a formal right to command and another has a formal obligation to obey.

Authority may be seen as institutionalised power. For example, a police officer has authority to ‘stop’ a motorist. The motorist is legally obliged to comply.

Managers are said to possess a ‘right to manage’. Employees are legally obliged to obey the employer’s instructions provided these are lawful and within the scope of the contract of employment.

Whereas power and authority are potentially mandatory, influence, by contrast implies persuasion.

Influence is usually conceived of being broader in scope, than power, Influence is more closely associated with leadership than power, but both obviously are involved in the leadership process. Marx was highly influential but not powerful.

in contrast Stalin was powerful but not influential. In organisations, employees may influence decisions through joint consultative committees and other mechanisms, yet the organisation reserves the final say.

Q3. What’s a learning organisation and describe it’s characteristics and it’s application. Discuss how learning organistions can be developed. Give examples.

Ans :- The concept of the learning organisation is derived from the work of Chris Argyris and Donald Schon but became fashionable during the 1990s.

A learning organisation is a form of organisation that enables the learning of its members in such a way that it creates positively valued outcomes such as innovation, efficiency, better alignment with the enviroment and competitive advantage.

Interest in the learning organisation concept have been stimulated by a number of factors. These are: MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

• the production of goods and services increasingly involves sophisticated knowledge;

• knowledge is, therefore, as valuable a resource as raw material;

• many organisations lost knowledgeable staff through delaying in the 1990s;

• new information technologies are knowledge-intensive;

• knowledge can have a short life span, made obsolete by innovation

• flexibility; creativity and responsiveness are now prized capabilities;

• knowledge can thus be a source of competitive advantage for an organisation

FeatureExplanation
A Learning Approach To Strategy
The Use Of Trials And Experiments To Improve Understanding And Generate Improvements, And To Modify Strategic Direction As Necessary
Participative Policy Making
All The Organization’s Members Are Involved In A Strategy Formation, Influenting Decisions And Values And Addressing Conflict
Information
Information Technology Is Used To Make Information Available To Everyone And To Enable Front-Line Staff To Act On Their Own Initiative
Formative Accounting And Control
Accounting, Budgeting And Reporting Systems Are Designed To Help People Understand The Operations Of Organisational Finance
Internal Exchange
Sections And Departments Think Of Themselves As Customers And Suppliers, In An Internal ‘Supply Chain, Learning From Each Other
Reward FlexibilityA flexible And Creative Reward Policy With Financial And Non-Financial Rewards To Meet Individual Needs And Performance
Enabling StructuresOrganisation Charts, Structures And Procedures Are Seen As Temporary And Can Be Changed To Meet Task Requirements
Boundary Workers As Environmental ScannersEveryone Who Has Contact With Customers, Suppliers, Clients And Business Partners Is Treated As A Valuable Information Source
Inter-Company LearningThe Organisation Leams From Other Organisations Through Joint Ventures, Alliances And Other Information Exchanges
A Learning ClimateThe Manager’s Primary Task Is To Facilitate Experimentation And Learning In Others Through Questioning, Feedback And Support
Self-Development Opportunities For AllPeople Are Expected To Take Responsibility For Their Own Learning, And Facilities Are Made Available. Especially To “Front-Line’ Staff

The main positive and negative ‘aspects of the learning organisation and its related concepts of intellectual capital and knowledge management are summarised in Table It may he noted here that the concept of learning organisation has remained, fashionable for over a decade.

This popularity has been reinforced by the growth of ‘knowledge work’, by the realisation that ideas generate competitive advantage and by technological developments. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

However, there are organisational barriers to the implementation of this ideal’ It will be interesting to observe whether the learning organisation remains fashionable in the twenty-first century.

Learning Organisation PositivesLearning organisation negatives
A Rich, Multi-Dimensional Concept Affecting Many Aspects Or Organisational BehaviorA Complex And Diffuse Sel Of Practices Difficult To Implement Systematically
An Innovative Approach To Learning, To Knowledge Management And To Investing In Intellectual CapitalAn Attempt To Use Dated Concepts From Change Management And Learning Theory. Repackaged As A Management Consulting Project
A New Set Of Challenging Concepts Focusing Attention On The Acquisition And Developiteni Or Individual And Corporate KnowledgeA New Vocabulary For Choouraging Employee Compliance With Management Directives In The Guise Of Self-Development
An Innovative Approach To Organisation Management And Employee DevelopmentAn Innovative Approach For Strengthening Management Control
Innovative Use Of Technology To Manage Organisational Knowledge Through Databases And The Internet Or IntranetsA Technology-Dependent Approxich Which Ignores How People Alually Develop And Use Knowledge In Organisations

Q4. Discuss how to build effective teams and the factors hindering them. Illustrate with examples.

Ans :- An effective team requires cohesion that is held together by several factors. In order to understand how to assemble an efficient team, you first need to know the factors affecting effective teamwork.

When you know how to create a productive team environment, you can begin to expect positive results from your team.

Focus on Goals According to Rice University Web Services, a team is driven by a common goal. In order to have an effective team, that common goal needs to be spelled out in advance and understood by team members.

What helps a team achieve success is focusing on the team goals. Put the goals in writing so everyone can see and understand what the objectives of the team are and help to work toward accomplishing them.

Remove Compensation Obstacles A team works well when the members understand what they will be compensated for their efforts. All Business notes it is best to come up with a compensation plan before assembling the team.

When people have their compensation expectations laid out before they sign an agreement to join the team, compensation can be removed as an obstacle to effective teamwork. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

If all team members feel they are being compensated fairly, that can help lead to maximum productivity.

Communication is Key Communication in developing an effective team happens on two levels: communication between team members and communication from management to the team.

Encourage open communication among teammates so they can learn how each other communicates. According to online business resource Business Town, this means informal communication as well as professional communication.

Encourage interaction between team members outside of the office to develop better communication. Managers should hold regular meetings to keep a team updated on important information and to offer training.

These are the kinds of tools a team needs from management and the company to be effective.

Encourage Positive Attitudes For team members to work well together, all need to have a positive attitude towards the company, the project and its goals, and each other.

If the team members don’t know each other well, or haven’t worked together before, encourage them to have casual meetings, say a lunch meeting or after-hours dinner.

Shared experiences create bonds and build trust, which are good ways to promote team spirit.MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

Try to have their offices near each other for ease in sharing ideas. Watch out for negative people, and encourage them to change or remove them from the team.

Deal With Conflict Rice University Web Services suggests dealing with conflict within a team as it arises. Conflict tends to throw a team off of its focus, getting it away from its goals and objectives.

By learning to deal with conflict immediately, a team can remain effective at all times.

Hinders Lack of a Common Goal In sports, the aim of the team is clear. The team must score more points than its opponent to win the game, whether that entails scoring touchdowns, goals or runs.

In business, the aim of the team may be less obvious. Do you prioritize throughput or quality? Is the aim to excel at customer service or offer the lowest cost service?

Lack of clearly defined goals or targets will hinder team effectiveness, as team members may take a conflicting or contradictory approach.

Poor Interpersonal Relationships While it is important for team members to challenge each other to avoid group think and stimulate creativity, conflict between team members can hinder team effectiveness.

If team members do not respect one another, they may be unwilling to share vital knowledge and skills. MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

lack of social cohesion can impact on team members’ job satisfaction, lowering productivity. Time invested in team-building activities can pay dividends in increased performance.

Management Style A manager’s leadership style can impact his team’s performance. An established team, with highly qualified team members carrying out tasks that are within their abilities,

needs less input than a new team full of inexperienced employees. Over-management of experienced employees can lead to frustration and disempowerment,

while lack of direction may cause inexperienced employees to make mistakes. The ideal management style is mixed or situational, able to adapt to the changing needs of the team.

Q 5. What are the characteristics of an inclusive organisation and explain how an organisation benefits by having inclusiveness.

Ans :- 1. It accepts diversity and inclusion as a way of life. In an inclusive organization, one sees diversity at every level within the institution.

Many cultures, traditions, beliefs, languages, and lifestyles are prevalent in both the workforce as well as the customer populations, and are respected without judgment.

People are viewed as individuals who have come together to coordinate action towards the achievement of common goals.

(2. It evaluates individual and group performance on the basis of observable and measurable behaviors and competencies.

Employees have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities. They are evaluated based upon their actions, not the opinions of others. Goals and expectations are achievable.MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

(3. It operates under transparent policies and procedures. There are no hidden rules of behavior that may be apparent to some groups and unknown to others.

(4. It is consistent in its interactions with everyone. There is no double standard. Rules are applied appropriately and regularly throughout the institution. No one group is favored over another.

(5. It creates and maintains a learning culture.
Career development is encouraged and supported for all employees by management.

Mentoring programs are robust, and include both formal and informal systems that meet the individual learning needs of all employees.

Mistakes are recognized, and their consequences addressed, but they are viewed as learning opportunities rather than character flaws.

(6. It has a comprehensive and easily accessible system of conflict resolution at all levels.

It recognizes that conflict is inevitable in a complex multicultural organization, and it has systems in place to address conflict in a non-confrontational manner that respects the dignity and confidentiality of all parties.

(7. It recognizes that it is part of the community that it serves. Employees, managers, and customers all come from the community.

An inclusive organization is an active participant in community activities, and plays a vital role in addressing its needs.

(8. It lives its mission and core values. People work for an organization because they believe in its purpose and goals.MS 21 Free Solved Assignment

An organization that promises one thing and delivers another, risks losing the trust and confidence of its workforce as well as its customers.

(9. It values earned privilege over unearned privilege. Employees are recognized for their actions and accomplishments, not simply because of their titles or degrees. Customers are treated with respect regardless of their socioeconomic status or class.

(10. It accepts and embraces change. Change is inevitable. An inclusive organization recognizes that current and past practices must constantly be reviewed and updated to meet the changing demands and needs of the industry, workforce, and customers.

mMPC 13 Free Solved Assignment July & Jan 2022

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