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MSOE 2

Diaspora and Transnational Communities

MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment jan 2022

Q. 2. Describe the migration patterns of Indian Diaspora to Europe in Post-independent.

Ans. Migration in the Post-Independence Period: It may be observed that a new and important phase of emigration began after India became independent in 1947.

We can notice three broad patterns of emigration in the post-independence period: The Anglo-Indian emigration to Australia and England, professionals emigration to the industrially advanced countries such as the United States of America,

England and Canada, and the emigration of skilled and unskilled Labourers to West Asian region. One of the least studied facets of the Indian diaspora is the emigration of the Anglo-Indians.

In India’s independence period, many of these descendants of intermarriage between Indians and the English felt marginalized and left India for England.

Among these several emigrated to Australia since they found that they were not racially and ethnically acceptable to the English.

Australia has become a second homeland to a significant section of these Indians.

Moreover, the large-scale and steady emigration of doctors, engineers, scientists and teachers to the industrially advanced countries of the West is essentially a post-independence phenomenon.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

This is especially true of the late 1960s and 1970s India. However, it somewhat declined with the adoption of stringent immigration regulations by the host nations.

We call this type of emigration brain drain. It is essentially voluntary and mostly individual in nature. Now, the second and subsequent generations have emerged, and the emigrant population is enjoying economic prosperity and socio-cultural rights.

Thus, this stream of emigration has resulted in vibrant Indian communities abroad. As opposed to it is the emigration of skilled and unskilled labourers to West Asia.

This started in the wake of the “oil boom” there. This emigration is voluntary in nature, but its trends and conditions are determined by labour market vagaries and other related conditions.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Britain: The presence of Indians in the U.K. is primarily a result of the interaction between the British Raj and India. The acute shortage of labour after the Second World War resulted in large migrations from India.

In sectors like health, Indian presence became crucial. There was a second flow of emigrants after the expulsion of Indians in Uganda. Today, the Indian community is well represented in every walk of life.

Although some Asians had settled in the United Kingdom, either temporarily or permanently, before the Second World War (including, most notably, the young Mohandas Gandhi),MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

most Asian immigration to the UK took place in the 1950s and 1960s from Commonwealth of Nations countries such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, at the same time as immigrants from former Caribbean colonies were also moving to Britain.

Although this immigration was continuous, three distinct phases can be identified:

(i) Manual workers were recruited to fulfil the labour shortage that resulted from World War II. These included Anglo-Indians who were recruited to work on the railways as they had done in India.

(ii) Medical doctors from West Bengal and Punjab, were recruited for the newly formed National Health Service. These people were targeted because they spoke English and held qualifications that were recognized in the UK and

(iii) During the 1970’s large numbers of East African Asians, who already held British passports, entered the UK after they were forced to leave Kenya and Uganda.

Many of these people had been storekeepers in Africa and opened shops when they arrived in the UK, thereby reviving the traditional British corner shop which until that point had been in decline.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 1962 and Immigration Act, 1971 largely restricted any further primary immigration, although family members of already settled migrants were still allowed.

In addition, much of the subsequent growth in the British Asian community has come from the births of second and third-generation Asian Britons.

USA: The Indian American community in the United States is over a million strong, but this large number has grown from small beginnings and an expansion Of immigration within the last thirty years.

The first Indian immigrant entered the United States in 1790 as a maritime worker, as part of the early commerce connections between India and the U.S. After that, the next noticeable groups of Indians came to the west coast of the United States, in the state of Washington, entering from Canada.

These early 20th century immigrants were largely agricultural workers. In the early 1920s only about five thousand Indians resided in the United States. At the time Indians were denied citizenship and the right to own land in many states.

After World War II, the U.S. desire for more professionals, particularly doctors, engineers, and entrepreneurs, facilitated the immigration of Indians.

In 1946, the Indian Citizenship Bill, co-sponsored in a bipartisan effort of Congressmen Emmanuel Celler and Clare Booth Luce, legalized the ability of Indian immigrants to seek naturalization and granted India a token quota of one hundred immigrants annually. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

When the Immigration Act of 1965 lifted immigrant quotas that had been in place for more than fifty years, the entry of Indians into the United States increased during the late 1960s and ’70s. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In 1960, estimates showed only five thousand Indians in the United States, but by 1970, this population had grown to approximately three hundred and fifty thousand.

The 1990 U.S. Census records the number of Indian-Americans at 815, 447, and between the 1980 and 1990 Census, the annual growth rate of the community was 8.5 per cent.

According to the estimate of the Population Reference Bureau, the Indian American population has grown by 103% in 1980-90, a growth rate second only to the Chinese among Asian American ethnic groups, and by 55% in 1990-97, second only to the Vietnamese. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

As a result, the Indian American population numbered 1.215 m in 1997, making it the third-largest Asian American ethnic group in the US, after the Chinese and the Filipino Americans, outstripping the Japanese.

Certainly, the Indian American community in the United States has experienced a remarkable transformation from its modest beginnings. The U.S. Census Bureau defines Indian-Americans as “Asian Indians.”

When households fill out the census they define themselves as Asian Indians, a sub-category of the Asian or Pacific Islander group People who choose to write in more specific categories, such as Gujarati or Sikh, are still classified as Asian Indians.

People are classified as Asian Indians if they are of Asian Indian origin or if they are of the Asian Indian race, or if they are foreign-born people from India.

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the national census count of 1990 differed from the true population by less than two per cent, which means that their statistics about the size of the Indian American population are quite accurate.

Using this margin of error, the Indian American community in 1990 would, at its highest count be approximately 831,755 people. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

This means that perhaps, with the highest estimates, around 15,000 Indian-Americans were left out of the census.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In estimating this undercount, the Census Bureau uses birth and death records, immigration records and previous censuses to estimate the true population.

It also conducts special surveys by taking scientific samples of census blocks and re-interviewing them independently of the census enumeration to determine accuracy.

It is, however, difficult to accurately estimate the undercount of Indian-Americans because adequate records on this segment of the population have not existed for a long period of time.

Canada: According to Canada Statistics (2001), there were 713, 330 people who classified themselves as being of Indian origin.

Though Indian Embassy reports that it is approximately 850,000 (2.74% of total population) Out of this population, 42% are Hindu, 39% are Sikh, and the rest are Muslim. Christian, Jain, Buddhist.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The main Indian ethnic communities are Punjabis (which account for more than half of the population) as well Gujaratis, Tamils, Keralites, Bengali,Sindhis and others.

Indians are the biggest community in and around Vancouver and Toronto. Most Indians
choose to immigrate to larger urban Centres like Toronto and Vancouver, where more than 70% live. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

The first Indians began moving to Canada in small numbers to British Columbia and were mainly male Sikh Punjabis who were seeking work opportunities abroad. These first immigrants faced widespread racism by the local white Canadians.

There were race riots that targeted these immigrants, as well as new Chinese immigrants as well. Most decided to return back to India, while a few stayed behind.

The Canadian government prevented these men from bringing their wives and children until 1919, which was the main reason why they decided to leave. Quotas were established to prevent many Indians from moving to Canada in the early 20th century.

These quotas allowed less than 100 people from India a year until 1957 when it was increased to 300 people a year.

Migration of Indo-Canadian migration took place from three routes

(i) directly from India, MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(ii) from Africa, especially from east Africa in the early 1970s when the second major wave of immigration started; and

(iii) from Caribbean countries. Though major change came after 1967, when Canada introduced Point base immigration system, thus allowing many more Indians to immigrate in large numbers.

Since this open-door policy was adopted, Indians continue to come in large numbers, and roughly 25,000-30,000 arrive each year (which is now the second Highest after Chinese immigrants). MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

The country’s Indian population expanded in the 1980s, mainly from Sikhs escaping troubles in India’s Punjab state. Of late, there has been an influx of investors and professionals as Canada has eased its immigration laws.

Indians are mainly Entrepreneurs but mainly are in medicine, academia, management and engineering (professional workers).

Emigrants from India today enjoy success in all fields within the economy while there are some concentrations in British Columbia in agriculture and forestry.

Since 1960s, many highly skilled workers and professionals have energized Canada’s universities, the civil service, hospitals, and high-tech industries.

Still, others have felt the sting of discrimination within the workplace or faced, as have other immigrants, the barrier to job placement, phrased vaguely as the lack of Canadian experience.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Despite some setbacks, Indian Canadians as a group have an average income higher than the Canadian average.

Indians have made noteworthy achievements in public life for example Mr Ujjal Dosanjh was elected as Premier of British Columbia and subsequently a Federal Health Minister in the previous government. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

West Asia: Modern Indian Diaspora in West Asia has a long and checkered history dating back to at least the 16th century. A number of small communities of Indian traders called baniyans existed in present-day Iraq, Oman, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

When the region came under British influence in the nineteenth century, Indian merchant communities flourished in a number of towns of the Gulf countries.

The Indians served as bankers, importers and exporters, customs farmers, agents for local merchants; government contractors, pearl-financiers, etc., and as such their contribution to the overall development of the gulf countries have been significant.

The emergence of Gulf countries as oil-producing and exporting economies and the consequent demand for labour changed the size and complexion of the Indian and other expatriate communities in the region.

The significance of the Gulf-based Indian Diaspora is better understood by the nature of remittances sent by the workers to their relatives and dependents in India which is currently estimated at about ten billion US dollars.

Outside the Gulf region Israelis the only country in West Asia that hosts a sizeable Indian community of Indian origin is estimated at around 60,000 – all Israely citizens.

MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022
MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 3. Elaborate on the nature of Indian diaspora in Fiji

Ans. Indians in Fiji: Indo-Fijians are Fijians whose ancestors came from India and various parts of South Asia, South-East Asia and Asia itself.

The number 313,798 (37.6%) (2007) out of a total of 827,900 people living in Fiji. They are mostly descended from indentured labourers, girmitiyas or girmit, brought to the islands by Fiji’s British colonial rulers between 1879 and 1916 to work on Fiji’s sugar cane plantations.

These were complemented by the later arrival of Gujarati and Punjabi immigrants who arrived as free settlers in comparison to their counterparts who were brought under the indentured labour system. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

They have adapted to the new environment with changes to their dress, language and culinary habits, although they have maintained their distinct culture.

The Fiji Indians have fought for equal rights, although with only limited success. Many have left Fiji in search of better living conditions and social justice and this exodus has gained pace with the series of coups starting in the late 1980s.

The Leonidas, a labour transport vessel, disembarked at Levuka from Calcutta on 14 May 1879.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The 463 indentured workers who disembarked were the first of over 61,000 to arrive from South Asia and some from East Asia over the following 37 years.

The majority were from the districts of eastern provinces mostly and a lot from the south that was later followed by, as well as some coming from the northern and few west regions, then later southern eastern countries,

they originated mostly from different regions, villages, backgrounds and castes that later mingled or intermarried into one which hence the “Fijian Indian” identity was created.

The indentured slaves originated mostly from rural village backgrounds or were mostly dispossessed peasants. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

While the women on the other hand were either kidnapped, prostitutes or young widows. Some were even brought as kidnapped child labour. From the early 1900s, Indians started arriving in Fiji as free agents.

Many of these paid their own way and had previously served in Fiji or other British colonies or had been born in Fiji.

Amongst the early free migrants, there were religious teachers, missionaries and at least one lawyer. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The government and other employers brought clerks, policemen, artisans, gardeners, experienced agricultural workers, a doctor and a school teacher.

Punjabi farmers and Gujarati craftsmen also paid their own way to Fiji and in later year years formed an influential minority amongst the Fiji Indians.

According to the 1996 census (the latest available), 76.7% of Indians are Hindus and a further 15.9% are Muslims.

Christians comprise 6.1% of the Indian population, while about 0.9% is members of the Sikh faith. The remaining 0.4% are mostly non-religious.

(a) Social Integration in Fiji after 1970: Differences between ethnic Fijian taukeis and Fijian Indians complicated preparations for Fijian independence, which the United Kingdom granted in 1970, and have continued to define Fijian politics since.

Prior to independence, Indians sought a common electoral roll, based on the principle of “one man, one sought a communal franchise instead, with different ethnic groups voting on separate electoral rolls.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

At a specially convened conference in London in April 1970, a compromise was worked out, under which parliamentary seats would be allocated by ethnicity, with ethnic Fijian taukeis and Fijian Indians represented equally.

In the House of Representatives, each ethnic group was allocated 22 seats, with 12 representing Communal constituencies (elected by voters registered as members of their particular ethnic group) and a further 10 representing National constituencies (distributed by ethnicity but elected by universal suffrage.

A further 8 seats were reserved for ethnic minorities, 3 from “communal” and 5 from “national” constituencies.

Ethnic Indians outnumbered indigenous Fijians from 1956 through the late 1980s.

This was due to the death of 1/ 3 of the indigenous population, mainly male and children, that died from smallpox contracted when King Cakabau and other chief leaders returned from a trip from Australia during which they caught smallpox.

The percentage of the Indigenous female population increased as a result, and the native male population was scarce at one stage,

but by 2000 their share of the population had declined to 43.7%, because of a higher ethnic-Fijian birthrate and particularly because of the greater tendency of Fijian Indians to emigrate.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Emigration accelerated following the coups of 19 (which removed an Indian-supported government from power and, for a time, ushered in a constitution that discriminated against them in numerous ways) and of 2000 (which removed an Indian Prime Minister from office).

Following the military coup of 1987, many Indians saw little future in staying in Fiji and tried to find any means to leave the country.

Professional, middle class and business found it easier to emigrate. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 Fiji Indians have emigrated since 1987. This represents a third of the existing Indian population in Fiji.

Political differences between the two communities, rather than ideological differences, have characterized Fijian politics since independence, with the two communities generally voting for different political parties.

The National Federation Party founded by A.D. Patel, was the party favoured overwhelmingly by the Indian community throughout most of the nation’s history, but its support collapsed in the parliamentary election of 1999 when it lost all of its seats in the House of Representatives; its support fell further still in the 2001 election

when it received only 22% of the Indian vote, and in the 2006 election, when it dropped to an all-time low of 14%.

The party currently favoured by Indians is the Fiji Labour Party, led by Mahendra Chaudhry, which received about 75% of the Indian vote in 2001, on all 19 seats reserved for Indians. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Originally founded as a multi-racial party in the 1980s, it is now supported mostly by Indians. Indo-Fijians are concentrated in the so-called Sugar Belt and in cities and towns on the northern and western coasts of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu; their numbers are much scarcer in the south and inland areas.

The majority of Fijian Indians converse in what is known as the Fiji Hindi language that has been joined from the eastern Hindi dialects mixed with native Fijian and English words, with some minorities speaking Gujarati, and Punjabi, among others.

Almost all Indians are also fluent in English.

MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment
MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 4. Write note on the five patterns of Indian emigration.

Ans. Five Patterns of Indian Emigration: In India, we find five patterns of emigration, namely, indentured labour emigration, free or passage emigration, brain-drain or voluntary emigration and labour emigration to West Asia.

While the last two have resulted due to the contradictions of the post-colonial socio-economic development of the country, the first three occurred during the colonial period.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Indentured Labour Emigration: The Indian indenture system was an ongoing system of indenture by which thousands of Indians were transported to various colonies of European powers to provide labour for the (mainly sugar) plantations.

It started from the end of slavery in 1833 and continued until 1920.

Kangani/Maistry Labour Emigration: The kangani (derived from Tamil kankani, meaning foreman or overseer) system prevailed in the recruitment of laboun for emigration to Ceylon and Malaya (see Jayaraman 1975:6).

A variant of this system called the maistry (derived from Tamil maistry, meaning supervisor) system was practised in the recruitment of labour for emigration to Burma.

Under these systems, the kangani or maistry (himself an Indian immigrant) recruited families of Tamil labourers from villages in the erstwhile Madras Presidency.

Under these systems, the labourers were legally free, as they were not bound by any contract or fixed period of service.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Passage Emigration: These systems – indentured and maistry or kangani, which began in the first and third quarter of the 19th century, were abolished in 1938.

Emigration from India did not cease after the abolition of indenture and other systems of organized export of labour.

There was a steady trickle of emigration of members of trading communities from Gujarat and Punjab to South Africa and East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), and those from South India to South East Asia.

Most labourers emigrated to East Africa to work on the railroad construction. These emigrants were not officially sponsored: they themselves paid their “passage” and they were “free” in the sense that they were not bound by any contract.

“Brain Drain”: The UNDP estimates that India loses $2 billion a year because of the emigration of computer experts to the U.S. Indian students going abroad for their higher studies costs India a foreign exchange outflow of $10 billion annually.

Human capital flight, more commonly referred to as “brain drain”, is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge.

The reasons usually include two aspects which respectively come from countries and individuals.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In terms of countries, the reasons may be social environment (in source countries: lack of opportunities, political instability, economic depression, health risks; in host countries: rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, developed economy, better living conditions).

In terms of individual reasons, there are family influences (overseas relatives, and personal preference: Preference for exploring, ambition for an improved career, etc).

Although the term originally referred to technology workers leaving a nation, the meaning has broadened into: “the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions”.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Labour Emigration to West Asia: Entire gulf region is sparsely populated, Saudi Arabia and Iraq being the only Gulf countries with a relatively large population of almost 22 and 23 million, respectively.

As for the others, the corresponding figures range from barely half a million to about 2.5. Foreign nationals are not permitted to own any business or immovable property in the Gulf Countries.

They are required to make a local citizen or entity a majority even if sleeping partner in their enterprises. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

The Indian Diaspora in the Gulf consists entirely of non-resident Indian citizens” (Or NRIs).

A conservative estimate of their number in the Gulf region, based on figures supplied by the Ministry of Labour and by Indian Missions in that area would be at least 3 million.

Semiskilled and unskilled workers still account for about 70% of the Indian migrants; while white-collar workers are in the neighbourhood of 20% and professionals (doctors, engineers, architects, bankers and chartered accountants) have a 10% share of the total.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Interactions and contacts of Indian migrants with the local people are limited and mostly of a formal and impersonal nature.

They are naturally drawn to their compatriots of a similar social status or background. A large number of Indian associations are thus to be found throughout the region,

which is based on commonalities such as place of origin, religion, language or profession. As many as a hundred such associations engaged in cultural and recreational

activities exist in Kuwait and UAE, while relatively smaller numbers exist in Saudi Arabia and Oman. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

The Indian Art Circle in Kuwait has even constructed an auditorium With a seating capacity of 1200 persons, in which regular cultural programmes and seminars are organized, and sometimes also performances by invited Indian artists.

The professional Indians and some of their white-Collar workers are the only ones who qualify to have their families with them due to the high basic income norms set by the Gulf Governments.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The living and working condition of the unskilled and semi-skilled Indian workers in the Gulf leaves much to be desired.

A majority of these NRIs are young males.

More than half their numbers have invariably gone from Kerala, while the remaining persons have mostly been from Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Over 60% of them have had little formal education.

Section-II

Q. 5. Discuss the role of literature in highlighting the diasporic experiences of Indians abroad, with reference to Canada.

Ans. Indian diaspora in Canada:

Present Profile: According to Statistics Canada, in 2006 there were 962,665 people who classified themselves as being of Indian origin, including terms of “East Indian”, South Asian or Indo-Canadian.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In 2001, Sikhs represented 34%, Hindus 27%, Muslims 17% and Christians 16% (7% Protestant/evangelical,9% Catholic) of the total people of Indian origin in Canada.

Relatively few people of Indian origin have no religious affiliation.

The main Indian ethnic Gujaratis, Tamils (Indian as opposed to Sri Lankan), Indo-Caribbeans (numbering approximately 200,000), Keralites, Bengalis, Sindhis and others.

The first known Indian settlers in Canada were Indian army soldiers who had passed through Canada in 1897 on their way back home from attending Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee celebration in London, England.

Some are believed to have remained in British Columbia and others returned there later. Punjabi Indians were attracted to the possibilities for farming and forestry.

They were mainly male Sikhs who were seeking work opportunities.

Indo-Caribbean, descendants of the Indian indentured workers who had gone to the Caribbean since 1838, made an early appearance in Canada with the arrival of the Trinidadian medical student Kenneth Mahabir and the Demerara (now Guyana) clerk M.N. Santoo, both in 1908.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Greater Toronto Area contains the second largest population of Indian descent in North America, enumerating 484,655 residents of Indian origin as of 2006, surpassed only by the 575,541 estimates by the 2007 American Community Survey for the New York Combined Statistical Area.

Note, however, that the Toronto count (but not the New York count) includes individuals of West Indian/Indo-Caribbean descent. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

Refugee Class: In 1996, the refugee from India in Canada crossed the never before mark of 1000 and reached to 1,242. most of these were Sikh separatists.

During the 1980s, 15-20% of all Indian immigration to Canada was considered illegal. This influx was caused due to Sikh youth visiting Canada during Punjab troubles.

Skilled Worker Class: The 1967 immigration policy of Canada selects skilled workers through the point system. The period of 1960s and 70s had started showing the increase in this category. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In the last decade, this category of migration from India has been rising steadily. This includes emigrants from Gujarat and Maharashtra other than Punjab.

About 30% of them have jobs in professional and managerial positions. As compared to other immigrants, Indians are more likely to have university degrees.

It is only the Chinese Canadian community that competes with the Indo-Canadians in the educational field. At the same time, the Indian community has also more non-matriculates than other immigrant groups. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

In this way, the Candian Indian community has two poles-one is less than grade five education and unskilled workers and the other is a professional class with higher education degrees.

Business Class: The Indians in Canada are also engaged in the proprietorship of small business class.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The self-employed, entrepreneurs and investors are the three main categories of Canada’s Indian business class.

The high capital requirement for investors has constrained Indian investors due to low convertibility regime of the Indian rupee.

When foreign exchange was made more liberal in 2000 the investor immigration to Canada increased to 122 between 1999 and 2000 bring India to 7th position from 12th as a source region for these immigrants.

Family Class: Almost half of all Indian immigration to Canada is made up of family class migration due to diasporic sponsorship’s central role in community formation.

The immigration of the family class includes spouses, children, parents and grandparents. This type of migration is the main propeller of Indian diasporic community building. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Past Policies: Immigrants from India have been settling in Canada since 1904. Since then, thousands have made Canada their new home, bringing with them their talents and skills, and the hope of contributing to their new country.

Many have come directly from India; others migrated to Canada after living in places such as Africa, Britain or the Caribbean. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

The Canadian government’s first attempt to restrict immigration from India was to pass an order in-council on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who “in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior” did not “come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving the country of their birth or nationality.”

In practice, this applied only to ships that began their voyage in India, as the great distance usually necessitated a stopover in Japan or Hawaii.

These regulations came at a time when Canada was accepting massive numbers of immigrants (over 400,000 in 1913 alone-a figure that remains unsurpassed to this day), almost all of whom came from Europe.

Though Gurdit Singh, was apparently aware of regulations when he chartered the Komagata Maru in January 1914, he continued with his purported goal of challenging these exclusion laws in order to have a better life. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

The Komagata Maru, a Japanese steamship that sailed from Hong Kong to Shanghai, China; Yokohama, Japan; and then to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1914, carried 376 passengers from Punjab, India.

The passengers were not allowed to land in Canada and the ship was forced to return to India.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The federal government’s continuous-journey provision remained law until 1947, as did most BC anti-South Asian legislation.

Because of community pressure and representations by the government of India, Canada allowed the wives and dependent children of South Asian Canadian residents to immigrate in 1919, and by the mid-1920s a small flow of wives and children had been established.

Faced with the coming independence of India, the federal government removed the continuous-passage regulation in the same year, replacing it in 1951 by an annual immigration quota for India (150 a year).

As racial and national restrictions were removed from the immigration regulations in the 1960s, South Asian immigration mushroomed.

It also became much more culturally diverse; a large proportion of immigrants in the 1950s were the Sikh relatives of pioneer South Asian settlers, while the 1960s also saw sharp increases in immigration from other parts of India and from Pakistan.

Non-discriminatory immigration regulations enacted in 1967 resulted in a further dramatic increase in most BC anti-South Asian legislation.

Because of community pressure and representations by the government of India, Canada allowed the wives and dependent children of South Asian Canadian residents to immigrate in 1919, and by the mid-1920s a small flow of wives and children had been established. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Faced with the coming independence of India, the federal government removed the continuous-passage regulation in the same year, replacing it in 1951 by an annual immigration quota for India (150 a year).

As racial and national restrictions were removed from the immigration regulations in the 1960s, South Asian immigration mushroomed.

It also became much more culturally diverse; a large proportion of immigrants in the 1950s were the Sikh relatives of pioneer South Asian settlers, while the 1960s also saw sharp increases in immigration from other parts of India and from Pakistan.

Non-discriminatory immigration regulations enacted in 196 resulted in a further dramatic increase in South Asian immigration.

In 1972 all South Asians were expelled from Uganda. Canada accepted 7000 of them (many of whom were Ismailis)las political refugees

Future Trends: Canada has recognised that immigration should be encouraged between India and Canada to build strong connections between the two nations, adding that health care workers were in particular demand. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

Canada offers a variety of skilled immigration rolites such as the Provincial Nominee programme: this allows skilled Indian workers to gain permanent residence in Canada through sponsorship from a Province or Territory which is experiencing skills gaps in certain sectors. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

There is also an independent points-based system called the Federal Skilled Worker programme.

In 1994, approximately 80% of South Asian Canadians were immigrants. Only the Sikhs have been in Canada long enough to have demonstrated a clear pattern of group maintenance through the generations.

Strong group consciousness and minority-group status resulted in high rates of cultural retention among BC Sikhs.

Virtually all of the second generation are knowledgeable about Sikh culture and language and marry other Sikhs.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

As shown by the presence of Indians in Canadian legislature, business lobby groups and other economic and religious groups, the Indian diasporic influence has been increasing in Canada.

It may be noted that the strengthening of Canada-India relations is expected as it is hoped that the Canadians of Indian origin would lead to deeper people to people contact.

Thus, an effort in this direction is to be made by both India and the Indian diasporic community of Canada. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q. 7. Examine the nature of Indian virtual communities in cyber space.

Ans.Understanding Virtual Community: The term virtual community is attributed to the book of the same title by Howard Rheingold, published in 1993.

The book, which could be considered a social enquiry, putting the research in the social sciences, discussed his adventures on The WELL and onward into a range of computer-mediated communication and social groups, broadening it to information science.

The technologies included Usenet, MUDs (Multi-User Dungeon) and their derivatives MUSHes and MoOs,

Internet Relay Chat (IRC), chat rooms and electronic mailing lists; the World Wide Web as we know it today was not yet used by many people.

Rheingold pointed out the potential benefits for personal psychological well-being, as well as for society at large, of belonging to such a group.

These virtual communities all encourage interaction, sometimes focusing around a particular interest, or sometimes just to communicate.

Quality virtual communities do both. They allow users to interact over a shared passion, whether it is through message boards, chat rooms, social networking sites, or virtual worlds. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Social moderation is the process by which community norms are maintained through social constructions and interaction, i.e., constitutions, declarations of purpose, and education of new members.

This type of moderation has been closely studied by online community researchers, as it represents an easily-understood sociological construction of community and community norms. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

Sociological theories from the real world” are most straightforward to examine in such regimes, as the online community is regarded as a simple extension of (or limited replacement for) “real” community.

Nessim Watson illustrates this idea of real life social norms transferred into cyberspace in a case study of the Phish.net community.

Phish was a widely popular jam-band in the tradition of the Grateful Dead, and Phish.net is a website and discussion forum (primarily linked to the rec.music.phish Usenet newsgroup) for the band’s (truly fanatical) fans.

The newsgroup is unmoderated that is anyone with access to Usenet has the ability to post to the group, and all posts are immediately visible to all of the group’s subscribers. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Group chatter revolves around many been closely studied by online community researchers, as it represents an easily-understood sociological construction of community and community norms.

Sociological theories from the “real world” are most straightforward to examine in such regimes, as the online community is regarded as a simple extension of (or limited replacement for) “real” community.

Nessim Watson illustrates this idea of real life social norms transferred into cyberspace in a case study of the Phish.net community.

Phish was a widely popular jam-band in the tradition of the Grateful Dead, and Phish.net is a website and discussion forum (primarily linked to the rec.music.phish Usenet newsgroup) for the band’s truly fanatical) fans.

The newsgroup is unmoderated that is, anyone with access to Usenet has the ability to post to the group, and all posts are immediately visible to all of the group’s subscribers.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Group chatter revolves around many topics, including tape trading, concerts, and song lyrics (Watson) Watson states thal a neweomer gains an awareness others’ discussions, and from the inevitable “flame’ or personal message from a more experienced group member who attempts to inform the user of where they crossed the line of acceptability for that group” (Watson).

Watson refers to work by (McLaughlin. Osborne and Smith) as evidence that such feedback reflects an emergent structure of Usenet: community self-regulation.

Virtual communities of diasporic communities thus are material and discursive, with very real material consequences. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

INDIAN DIGITAL DIASPORAS

Early research into the existence of media-based communities was concerned with the nature of reality, whether communities actually could exist through the media, which could place virtual community research into the social sciences definition of ontology.

In the seventeenth century, scholars associated with the Royal Society of London formed a community through the exchange of letters.

“Community without propinquity”, coined by urban planner Melvin Webber in 1963 and “community liberated,” analysed by Barry Wellman in 1979 began the modern era of thinking about non-local community.

As well, Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communities in 1983, described how different technologies, such as national newspapers, contributed to the development of national and regional consciousness among early nation-states.

In Frederic Jameson’s view, postmodernity’s merging of all discourse into an undifferentiated whole was the result of the colonization of the cultural sphere,

which had retained at least partial autonomy during the prior modernist era, by a newly organized corporate capitalism. MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The term diaspora carries a sense of displacement. Sökefeld conclusively argues that the multiplicity of different definitions of diaspora notwithstanding, all is based upon a decisive condition of space: the spatial separation of the diaspora community from its homeland.

Diaspora is about not being there” (2002). This sense of displacement is somewhat replenished by digital interactions of the Indian diaspora.

The development of the Indus Entrepreneurs (TiE) is instructive in terms of what is possible for Africa. MSOE 2 Free Solved Assignment

TiE was started in 1992 as a small Indian-ethnic organization of people eager to contribute to the cause of entrepreneurship among the Indus people in Silicon Valley.

TiE now has over 8000 members in 40 chapters worldwide and hundreds of successful TiE-inspired startups, many directly benefiting India’s economy.

Most inspiring to the concept of the Digital Diaspora Network for Africa is the fact that TiE has now assumed a broader role for itself to foster socio-economic development globally.MSOE 2 Solved Free Assignment 2022

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